The Papyrus of Ani, which was acquired by the Trustees of the British Museum
in the year 1888, is the largest, the most perfect, the best preserved, and the
best illuminated of all the papyri which date from the second half of the XVIIIth
dynasty (about B.C. 1500 to 1400). Its rare vignettes, and hymns, and chapters,
and its descriptive and introductory rubrics render it of unique importance for
the study of the Book of the Dead, and it takes a high place among the authoritative
texts of the Theban version of that remarkable work. Although it contains less than
one-half of the chapters which are commonly assigned to that version, we may conclude
that Ani's exalted official position as Chancellor of the ecclesiastical revenues
and endowments of Abydos and Thebes would have ensured a selection of such chapters
as would suffice for his spiritual welfare in the future life. We may therefore
regard the Papyrus of Ani as typical of the funeral book in vogue among the Theban
nobles of his time.
The first edition of the Facsimile of the Papyrus was issued in 1890, and was
accompanied by a valuable Introduction by Mr. Le Page Renouf, then Keeper of the
Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities. But, in order to satisfy a widely
expressed demand for a translation of the text, the present volume has been prepared
to be issued with the second edition of the Facsimile. It contains the hieroglyphic
text of the Papyrus with interlinear transliteration and word for word translation,
a full description of the vignettes, and a running translation; and in the Introduction
an attempt has been made to illustrate from native Egyptian sources the religious views of the wonderful people who more than five
thousand years ago proclaimed the resurrection of a spiritual body and the immortality
of the soul.
The passages which supply omissions, and vignettes which contain important variations
either in subject matter or arrangement, as well as supplementary texts which appear
in the appendixes, have been, as far as possible, drawn from other contemporary
papyri in the British Museum.
The second edition of the Facsimile has been executed by Mr. F. C. Price.
E. A. WALLIS BUDGE.
January 25, 1895.
Keep this website alive, a Donation will be highly appreciated
Please consider a donation supporting our efforts.
Please report broken links to the
This is a Non-Commercial Web page, © 1998-2011 L.C.Geerts The Netherlands all rights reserved.
It is strictly forbidden to publish or copy anything of my book without permission of the author, permission is granted for the recourses, for personal use only.