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The Oera Linda Book, Glossary

The Oera Linda Book

Written in 1256 AD, from a diary
which was put together 560-558 BC.

from the Original Frisian text

verified by Dr. Ottema

by :

William R. Sandbach

Londen, Trubner & Co, 1876

GLOSSARY OF NAMES, WORDS FROM THE BOOK

  • Adel, Son of Friso and husband of Ifkja.
  • Adela, The un-elected Earth Mother, the Maiden of Liudgaard, whom the people wanted to elect after the murder of Frana in 589 BC. Instead, she resigned to marry Apol, became matriarch, to what was to become the Oera Linda family, and advised the copying of the citadel records that led to the Oera Linda Book.
  • Adelbond, A mutual defense and attack agreement among surviving citadels made by Apol against the Magy.
  • Adelbrost, Son of Adela who briefly continued the Book after his mothers death until his own murder.
  • Aldland, The old land, Atland or home country.
  • aldermen The older men of a burgt who made the laws of their district by popular assembly. They did not become law until approved by the burgtmaid.
  • Alexander, King of Macedonia who becomes a historically verifiable figure in the Book. He purchased the fleet of the Geertmen in India and was responsible for their return to the Mediterranean.
  • Alkmarum, A settlement with an island in a lake where black rowers were kept while waiting for the ships.
  • Allemannen, A name exiled Germans gave themselves when they were without women.
  • Almanland, A fortified trading town, not a city but an important free-market port for ships of all nations.
  • Alrik, King Askars nephew who tried to unite the German tribes under his Uncles patronage but was thwarted by the independent Franks.
  • Alvader, A term probably introduced in Christian times meaning Our Father and referring to Wr-Alda or God.
  • Angelaren, Angles or Engles. A people of Fryas land who made their living as rod fishermen or anglers.
  • Antigonus, The general of Alexander who took over Greece after his death. Father of Demetrius.
  • Apol, Husband of Adela. A sea-king who became Grevetman of Ostflyland and Lindaoord.
  • Apol, (son) Younger son of Adela who founded the citadel of Lindasburgt in Norway in order to avenge his parents murder against the followers of the Magi. He formed the Adelbond agreement for this purpose.
  • Apollonia, Daughter of Adela, Burgtmaid of Liudgaard and important compiler of the "Book of Adelas Followers".
  • Athens, The "City of Friends", named by Minerva when she left Crete to found a new citadel.
  • Atlantic, The ocean where ships of the "old land" (Atland) sailed.
  • Asegaboek, A city or districts code of laws and moral conducts.
  • Askar, Originally the asker or inquirer of property, a government post most likely related to taxation or defense levy. It became a royal title and name of the first hereditary king at the end of the age. See Black Adel.
  • Atharik, The name meaning rich in friends given to Adel, the son of Friso who succeeded his father as chief count in the first step to royal succession.
  • Athenia, The district around Athens, "the city of friends", Attica.
  • Atland, Same as Aldland but a shortened version used by the seamen.
  • Beeden, One of the last contributors to the Book. A grandson of Frethorik, he was required to acknowledge Adel III as overlord before succeeding his uncle as count.
  • Berthold, The father of Ifkja, wife of Frisos son Adel.
  • Black Adel, King Askar who was the fourth king after Friso. He appealed to military prowess by censuring the learning of writing as unworthy of a soldier when lands had to be restored from the enemy.
  • Brokmen, A term used by Frethorik to deplore the commercialism rampart at the end of the age.
  • Burgtmaid, Burgtmaagd, or local Mother of a citadel. Head of the maidens or virgins and eligible for election to Earth Mother.
  • Burgtmaster, A mayor of a town.
  • Cecrops, An Egyptian priest-commander who laid siege to Athens and negotiated the safe evacuation of the Geertmen.
  • Count, Originally a public office that counted the market sales on which taxes were levied. It become associated with the public levy or call to arms in time of defense and then the chief count, an elected position led on to hereditary kingship when combined with that of Askar.
  • Coward, A youth who had to stay home and tend the cows because he was unfit for service with the sea-kings.
  • Dela, Dela Hellenia was a prophet who may have added her later contribution in Christian times.
  • Demetrius, Son of Antigonus whose depravity caused the sailors to coin the word demented (without mind).
  • Druids, The name meaning "liars", given to missionary priests from Sidon by Frisians because they claimed to speak the truth. (See Golen and Triuwenden).
  • Earth Mother, Eeremoeder, or Earth Mother, the chief of state elected from the Burgtmaiden who served as the defender of Fryas laws for the protection of the combined states. Resolutions passed by the combined assemblies of the aldermen had to be approved by her before they became law. She could call a general levy of the military forces. She resided at Texland in the largest citadel of them all.
  • Evin, A sacred name related to Eve, not even to be spoken in ancient times.
  • Fasta, Festa, Vesta. The first Earth Mother, appointed by Frya after the loss of Atland. She received and codified Fryas Tex and built the first citadel at Texland. She became the goddess Hestia or Vesta and gave her name to the Vestal Virgins in later millennia.
  • Finda, The second goddess created by Wr-Alda who mothered the yellow race. Her children ultimately conquered all of Europe and interbred with Fryas and Lydas descendants to form the present population mixture. They were the persistent foe of the Free peoples.
  • Forest, The woods where the foe (Findas people) rested at night.
  • Flyburgt, The city at Flymeer or the mouth of the Fly river.
  • Flyland, The district around the Fly river (modern Vlie) which may have been the northern branch of the Rhine.
  • Forana, A great citadel and trading port of the low lands.
  • Frana, The Earth Mother who was murdered by the Magy after a marine invasion of Texland.
  • Franken, Franks or Frijen. A German tribe which preferred to remain independent of King Askar and invaded Gaul in the third century BC. Named after their first hereditary king.
  • Frethogunsta, The daughter of the king of Hals who married Askar. She brought idolatry into the royal family.
  • Frethorik, A grandson of Adela and important contributor to the Book. He was elected Askar in his time and told us the story of the recovery after the disasters of 305 BC.
  • Friesland, The name for the lands of the descendants of Frya, originally all of Europe but finally just a coastal area of Holland.
  • Frigg, The later day Scandinavian name for their understanding of the goddess Frya.
  • Frijen, An early name for Franken used when they had elected kings.
  • Friso, A Frisian who traveled to India and helped Alexander of Macedonia bring back to the Mediterranean the Indus fleet. He served Antigonus and Demetrius before bringing the Geertmen to the Rhine in the time of Gosa. He wanted to be permanent king and his descendants succeeded eventually in doing this.
  • Frya, The third goddess created by Wr-Alda and mother of the white race. She gave her sacred `Tex to Fasta, the first Earth Mother, thereby inventing phonetic writing. Her name gave us "freedom" and "friend" but was much misunderstood by the succeeding Finda peoples who had many names for her in their attempt to incorporate her into their pantheon.
  • Fryasburgt, The federal capital city at Texland.
  • Gedrosten, Runaways from India who settled in Afghanistan. So named by the Hindu priests.
  • Geert, The Mother or Burgtmaid of Athens who succeeded Minerva. She and her followers escaped to India after the siege of Athens about 1560 BC.
  • Geertmen, The descendants of the followers of Geert, even fifteen hundred years after her time.
  • Geertmania, The name the Geertmen gave to their new home on the Rhine. Named after their land in the Punjab.
  • Godfried, A sea-king circa 2000 BC known as the `Old who is credited with adding a decimal number system to writing.
  • Golen, Missionary priests from Sidon who celebrated cruel festivals. They were much hated by Frisians who called them Druids. They gave their name to Gaul.
  • Gosa, Gosa Makonta was the last elected Earth Mother, 323 BC. Her citadel survived the "second bad times".
  • Greva, The elders. Age was held in respect and incorporated into government.
  • Grevetman, A high civic office like a local governor. Originally a hearer of grievances.
  • Hachgana, Son of Wiljo, father of Beeden, a late contributor to the Book.
  • Heerman, Forerunner of the position "duke" when it was an elective office, a circuit judge.
  • Helgoland, A tiny island off the North Frisian Islands that was known to be much larger in historical times. Could have originally been part of Atland.
  • Hellenia, A shortened name for Nyhellenia Minerva. Not to be confused with Dela Hellenia. (See Minerva).
  • Hellicht, An Earth Mother who predicted that Fryas customs would never take firm hold in Athens.
  • Hellingers, The original seamen name for the Greeks, meaning cliff hangers.
  • Hiddo, Hiddo Over de Linda wrote the opening lines of the Book in 1256 AD.
  • Hyperboria, A far land beyond the north wind.
  • Ifkja, Wife of Adel, the son of Friso who tried to unite the country in the final good times.
  • Inka, A nephew of Sterik and cousin of Wodin and Teunis. He took half the renegade fleet and sailed into the Atlantic, never to be heard from again.
  • Irtha, Mother Earth, Gaea, Gaia.
  • Jon, Jon, John, Jhon meaning "given". A sea-king who became a pirate against the Phoenicians and based in the Ionian island named after him. Rosamond issued a warrant against him for destroying Kaltas citadel.
  • Joniers, The descendant of the followers of Jon or Ionians known for their seamanship.
  • Jonischen, Ionian, Jons Islands or the Pirate Islands. The reference at the time of Ulysses.
  • Jutlanders, Jutmen, originally meaning those who trade in amber (jutten). They were from the Baltic but migrated to Denmark after the "second bad times".
  • Jule, A wheel meaning a day or a year. The cycle of the sun.
  • Jule-time, Jule-tide, the shortest day of the year, eventually celebrated as Christmas.
  • Julefest, The festival associated with Jule-tide.
  • Kaat, Original name of Kalip or Calypso, the Burgtmaid of Walhallagara who entertained Ulysses.
  • Kadhemers, The inhabitants of the north part of Crete who never went to sea. A dweller near the coast. A Phoenician.
  • Kadmus, A legendary Phoenician who is traditionally credited with bring the alphabet to Greece.
  • Kadik, Modern Cadiz in Spain.
  • Kalip, (see Kaat)
  • Kalta, A name given to the Burgtmaid Sijred of Flyburgt by the sailors because of her devious ways. Her followers became known as Kelts or Celts. After loosing the election, she rebelled against the new Earth Mother and set up a rival state, with the help of the magi, that included Gaul and Britain. Kaltasburgh Kerenak, the new citadel of Kalta which was probably in Scotland.
  • Katerine, Kat, the Burgtmaid of Godasburgt in Norway who after being overrun by the Magy chose death to disgrace and gave her name to the Kattegat or strait where she drowned.
  • Keeren Herne, Kerenak or Chosen Corner. (See Kaltasburgh).
  • Kerenak, (See Keeren Herne)
  • King, An elected leader or general for a campaign. Sons were not allowed to succeed fathers as king.
  • Konered, Son of Frethorik and Wiljo, who contributed to the Book after their deaths.
  • Kreta, Crete, the land of criers because they shouted at foreign ships that came too close.
  • Kroder, The hand or spoke that goes around the Jule or circle. These symbols were used to form the first phonetic alphabet.
  • Letlanders, People from the Baltic or the bad sea.
  • Letten, Isolated islanders so named because they are let alone.
  • Liko, Liko Over de Linden wrote the second letter in the Book that was copied from the 803 AD original.
  • Linda, Meaning lime trees or plane trees, this term has given rise to many family and place names including the authors of the Book. Originally it was a distinction or reward for service, to be able to build ones house in the location that was "over the lime trees".
  • Lithauers, A name given to a German tribe which always attacked the face of their enemies. It means "face hewers".
  • Liudgaard, A citadel that gave rise to many names beginning with "Liud". It was located at the mouth of the Rhine and was inundated by the sea in 305 BC.
  • Liudgert, The admiral of Wichhirt who settled in Walhallagara and was elected king after Wichhirt. He described the Punjab in his writings.
  • Libya, From Lyda, or Africa as it was known to the Mediterranean.
  • Lyda, The first Goddess, created by Wr-Alda, who was the mother of the black race. Little is known of her except her strong passion. Her descendants were often employed as rowers in the great fleets but never as slaves. Many ultimately married into Europe.
  • Lydasburgt, A town on the Rhine were the black rowers were kept waiting for the fleet to leave again.
  • Magy, The title of the priest-king of the Finns and Magyars in much the same way as Pharaoh was used by the Hebrew bible.
  • magi The various priest-kings of Findas people who ruled with fear and magic. A chief Druid.
  • Makonta, Surname of Gosa, the last Earth Mother.
  • Marsaten, The lake dwellers of Switzerland. They were considered poor members of Friesland.
  • Medesblik, An important citadel that dates from the time of the first Earth Mother.
  • Minerva, Pallas Athena in Greek. Hellene or Nyhellenia Minerva, the Rhine maiden who was brought to Crete and Athens by the sea-king Jon and founded a citadel there.
  • Minno, King Minos, an ancient sea-king, who gave laws to Crete and eventually returned to the Rhine where he left his contributions to the Book on the walls of Walhallagara from where they were copied a thousand years later.
  • Missellia, The island that became Marseilles. It was mistakenly sold to the Golen of Sidon hence the name "miss sale". It eventually became the first city of the Gaul in southern France.
  • Navigator, Originally meant a seaman. Someone who made foreign voyages.
  • Nearchus, The admiral of Alexander who was in charge of the expeditions using the fleet of the Geertmen.
  • Neef, Nephew or cousin.
  • Nyhellenia, (see Minerva)
  • Pallas Athena, Greek goddess of wisdom, Minerva.
  • Phonisia, Palmland, or Phoenicia. The land of the Golen at Sidon.
  • Prontlik, A latter-day burgtmaid of Texland who escaped the ambitions of King Askar by hiding in a neighboring forest with her maidens. The last Mother of the most ancient citadel.
  • Puniers, Phoenicians or Carthaginians. A mixture of Finns, Frisians and Blacks. They were the same people who settled Gaul under their Golen or priests. Those ones became known as Celts while the south Mediterranean peoples were the traditional enemies of Rome.
  • Reintja, The last Burgtmaid of Stavia who made a deal with King Askar to rebuild her citadel in return for rallying the districts to support him. He reneged on the deal.
  • Rika, The old Maiden who tried to oppose the ambitions of Frisos successors to form hereditary kingships and desert the old ways.
  • Rome, This city is traditionally believed to be named after its founder Romulus but the Frisians say the word means spacious and was founded by Trojans.
  • Saxmen, Inhabitants of the north bank of the Rhine. Originally a term for ax-men or foresters because they were always armed against the wild beasts. In the forth century BC it appears as a German tribe.
  • Schoonland, Ancient name for Scandinavia not including Denmark.
  • Scythian, The horsemen of the Slavonic regions that were originally considered part of Fryas race and culture before the first disasters. There have been many archaeological discoveries of these tall, fair people in the Caucasus regions.
  • Sea-king, The elected leader for the expedition of a merchant fleet. The huge fleets commanded respect and fair trade because of their armed might. He was above the admiral and chief merchant.
  • Sijred, (see Kalta)
  • Skrivfilt, The ancient name for paper or parchment of linen base and an important commercial product.
  • Sterik, An old sea-king who had three nephews named Wotan, Teunis and Inka. Stuurlieden Inhabitants near Denmark who made their living in small boats. The name came to mean navigator in the modern sense.
  • Teunis, Neef Teunis or Neptune of later traditions. He gave his name to Tunisia, founded Tyre and was acclaimed to be the first king of the Phoenicians by the Golan of Sidon.
  • Teuntia, The Burgtmaid of Medesblik who was recommended by Gosa Makonta to succeed her. There was no conclusive election.
  • Texel, A tiny island in Holland; all that remains of Texland and the city of Fryasburgt.
  • Texland, The original province of Fryas land where the first citadel and seat of the Earth Mother was built for Fasta.
  • Thyr, Thor. One of the idols of the Finns whose name was given to Tyre by Teunis and his followers who became the Phoenicians. In Finland, the son of Odin.
  • Thyriers, Early Phoenicians.
  • Triuwenden, "Abstainers from the truth", a word that became Druids.
  • Troost, A burgtmaid of Stavia.
  • Tuntia, A burgtmaid of Cadiz.
  • Twiskar, A resident of Twiskland or Germany.
  • Ulysses, A sea-king who visited from the Mediterranean who visited Kalip after failing to get a sacred lamp from the Earth Mother. His exploits inspired the original Odyssey.
  • Urgetten, The "Forgotten" or residents west of the Punjab.
  • Walhalla, Where the valiant soldiers go after an honorable death.
  • Walhallagara, Minervas Rhineland citadel in 1600 BC and later that of Kaat (Calypso).
  • Waraburgt, An international trading center, not a maidens city.
  • Wichhirt, The leader of the Geertmen at the time of Alexander. He returned with his people to settle in the Emude and contributed much of the Indian section to the Book.
  • Wiljo, Wife of Frethorik who continued the Book after him.
  • Witkoning, A sea-king.
  • Wodin, Senior cousin and commander of Neef Teunis and Neef Inka who disgraced the northern campaign by marrying the daughter of the Magy who kept him drugged as a puppet king and then deified him. He became known as Odin.
  • Wr-Alda, God. Neither male nor female, the oldest concept of monotheism meaning "all that is", the "Oldest One".
  • Yren, People west of the Punjab, the Iranians, meaning "morose" but named by Hindu priests from whom they wanted to escape.
  • Zeecampers, A Frisian people named because they made their living on the seashore.
  • Zoethart, A sailors sweetheart or lively heart.

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