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From Goddess to King, Chapter 4, FRYA AND THE LAND THAT WAS HOME

FROM GODDESS TO KING

A History of Ancient Europe from the

OERA LINDA BOOK

By Anthony Radford

CHAPTER 4

FRYA AND THE LAND THAT WAS HOME

radford-chapter-04

The first translation of the first letter into modern Frisian.

Theopening lines of the Oera Linda Book are by Hiddo Over de Linda. He was the last to copy it in the year 1256 AD. His only additional contribution is this opening letter in which he entreats his descendants to keep the book safe so that it may never be lost. Very significantly, he dates all the older times by referring them to the number of years since the submergence of Atland, the Old Land or the original home of these pre-Christian Europeans. The date is given as 3449 less 1256 or 2193 BC and marks the beginning of the continental post submergence calendar that is referred to several times in the Oera Linda Book. Here we have the tone of the Book set in the first letter; protection from power sources that cannot tolerate free expression and the gift of exciting historical facts. That original date is even confirmed again from a different source as we read on.

The actual writings from the Book are listed in type with serifs after the authors commentary. The translation is modern but retains much of the original style that these ancient narrators, members of a Frisian family, used when compiling a collection of history and sociology near the end of a very long and proud age.

The book begins:

Okke My Son

You must preserve these books with body and soul. They contain the history of all our people, as well as of our forefathers. Last year I saved them from the flood, as well as you and your mother; but they got wet and therefore began to perish. In order not to lose them, I copied them on foreign paper.

In case you inherit them, you must copy them likewise, and your children must do so too, so that they never may be lost.

Written at Liudwert, in the three thousand four hundred and forty-ninth year after Atland was submerged - that is according to the Christian reckoning, the year 1256.

Hiddo, surnamed Over de Linda - Watch.

The second letter is by Liko Over de Linda who added it to the Book that he probably copied from an older unknown edition in the year 803 AD. Hiddo Over De Linda in his edition reproduced it, the work that is most likely to be the actual Oera Linda Book which was introduced to the modern world in 1871.

Liko makes his earlier entreaty to keep the book out of the hands of the Christian monks who "Conspire with foreign kings to destroy all that we derive from our forefathers."

Beloved successors, for the sake of our dear forefathers, and of our dear liberty, I entreat you a thousand times never let the eye of a monk look on these writings. They are very insinuating, but they destroy in an underhand manner all that relates to us Frisians. In order to gain rich benefices, they conspire with foreign kings, who know that we are their greatest enemies, because we dare to speak to their people of liberty, rights and duties of princes. Therefore they seek to destroy all that we derive from our forefathers, and all that is left of our customs.

Ah, my beloved ones! I have visited their courts! If Wr-Alda permits it, and we do not show ourselves strong to resist, they will altogether exterminate us.

Liko, Surnamed Over de Linda.

Written at Liudwert,

Anno Domini 803.

The next passage reproduced here does not occur in this sequence in the Oera Linda Book as it was apparently added about 530 BC by Apollonia, the daughter of Adela. Adela was an important defender of the Free Land but refused to become the new Earth Mother because she wanted to marry and have a family. Apollonia became a Burgtmaid of Liudgaard and added the passage because it was missing from the collection at that time. It was taken from a much older inscription on the outside wall of the tower of the Citadel of Liudgaard. An important town of the time near the Rhine, or where that river may have been in ancient times as the rivers and islands of modern Holland are very different from the geography of thousands of years ago.

Creation is ascribed to Wr-Alda who is essentially their name for God. Neither male nor female, Wr-Alda is the formless concept of a monotheistic belief older than the biblical references to the originally plural translation of the word "Elohim". However recent research shows that even the ancient Sumerians had a concept of a singular creative force or entity behind their many references to different gods. Like the monotheistic teachings of the Pharaoh Akhenaton of Egypt in the fourteenth century BC, the symbolism of the sun to represent one god was also used by these people. This could be the oldest written record of the concept of monotheism.

They show a good working definition of "wickedness", not the popular dualistic interpretation that implies something morally bad or evil but one that is related to "heaviness, carelessness and stupidity" or the Hindu term "Tamas" and ignorance. Such dichotomies for example, wicked-saintly, or good-evil, et cetera may contribute to a cultures inability to respond to change. If transgressors are branded by society, then what is the point in teaching them new values? All this hundreds of years before the Vedas were written was lost because Europe did not develop or was unable to maintain a mystic tradition like India. Even the word mystic attests to a need for protection from censure in the East as well as the West.

In the oldest passages, Wr-Alda is referred to in the feminine. Later sections refer to the Oldest One in the masculine. Apparently they had the same lack of general pronouns as we do today. It is disrespectful to refer to God as "It" and "They" is very confusing. This gender change is an example how the Matriarchal Age changed to the patriarchal. The early Christian editors of the Bible completed it in the first three centuries AD.

The old legend which is written on the outside wall of the city tower is not written in The Book of Adelas Followers. Why this has been neglected I do not know; but this book is my own, so I will put it out of regard to my relations.

The Oldest Doctrine:

Hail to all the well-intentioned children of Frya! Through them the earth shall become holy. Learn and announce to the people Wr-Alda is the ancient of ancients, for he created all things. Wr-Alda is all in all, for he is eternal and everlasting. Wr-Alda is omnipresent but invisible, and therefore is called a spirit. All that we can see of him are the created beings who come to life through him and go again, because from Wr-Alda all things proceed and return to him. Wr-Alda is the beginning and the end. Wr-Alda is the only almighty being, because from him all other strength comes, and returns to him. Therefore he alone is the creator, and nothing exists without him. Wr-Alda established eternal principles, upon which the laws of creation were founded and no good laws could stand on any other foundation. But although everything is derived from Wr-Alda, the wickedness of men does not come from him. Wickedness comes from heaviness, carelessness, and stupidity; therefore they may well be injurious to men, but never to Wr-Alda. Wr-Alda is wisdom, and the laws that he has made are the books from which we learn, nor is any wisdom to be found or gathered but in them. Men may see a great deal, but Wr-Alda sees everything. Men can learn a great deal, but Wr-Alda knows everything. Men can discover much, but to Wr-Alda everything is open. Mankind are male and female, but Wr-Alda created both. Mankind love and hate, but Wr-Alda alone is just. Therefore Wr-Alda is good, and there is no good without him. In the progress of time all creation alters and changes, but goodness alone is unalterable; and since Wr-Alda is good, he cannot change. As he endures, he alone exists; everything else is show.

All peoples have their myth of the original creation of mankind. In most of Europe today, the Biblical book of Genesis that has been borrowed from the Hebrew, Akkadian and Sumerian myths serves this purpose. Every child knows about Adam and Eve. Much of Asia shares a common but different story and in more remote islands and tribes, these stories can be very individual and specific for that culture. Here is recorded the early European version of creation in which Irtha or Mother Earth created the mothers of mankind twelve years after the earth was created by God. It is also very specific and written from the point of view of the "Children of Frya" or the Friends of Europe. It is recorded as fact just as is the story of Genesis.

Most importantly this "Oldest Doctrine" shows the basis of the entire attitude of these people. They were taught as children to never trust the yellow invaders of the country, Findas people. They were taught to respect the `Tex that was engraved in stone on the first citadel at Texland. From this word we have our modern words "text and textbook." They were introduced to a moral code and a political one for the preservation of their independence. They were reminded of the earliest beginnings that were drastically interrupted by a natural disaster but they were not left alone by their Mother Goddess when at that time she "ascended to heaven," from Texland.

This is our earliest history:

Wr-Alda, who alone is eternal and good, made the beginning. Then commenced time. Time wrought all things, even the earth. The earth bore grass, herbs, and trees, all useful and all noxious animals. All that is good and useful she brought forth by day, and all that is bad and injurious by night.

After the twelfth Julefest she brought forth three maidens:

Lyda out of fierce heat.

Finda out of strong heat.

Frya out of moderate heat.

When the last came into existence, Wr-Alda breathed his spirit upon her in order that men might be bound to him. As soon as they were full grown they took pleasure and delight in the visions of Wr-Alda.

Hatred found its way among them. They each bore twelve sons and twelve daughters - at every Jule-time a couple. Thence come all mankind.

Lyda was black, with hair curled like a lambs; her eyes shone like stars, and shot out glances like those of a bird of prey.

Lyda was acute. She could hear a snake glide, and could smell a fish in the water.

Lyda was strong and nimble. She could bend a large tree, yet when she walked she did not bruise a flowers stalk.

Lyda was violent. Her voice was loud, and when she screamed in anger every creature quailed.

Wonderful Lyda! She had no regard for laws; her actions were governed by her passions. To help the weak she would kill the strong, and when she had done it she would weep by their bodies.

Poor Lyda! She turned gray by her mad behavior, and at last she died heartbroken by the wickedness of her children. Foolish children! They accused each other of their mothers death. They howled and fought like wolves, and while they did this the birds devoured the corpse. Who can refrain from tears at such a recital?

Finda was yellow, and her hair was like the mane of a horse. She could not bend a tree, but where Lyda killed one lion she killed ten.

Finda was seductive. Her voice was sweeter than any birds. Her eyes were alluring and enticing, but whoever looked upon them became her slave.

Finda was unreasonable. She wrote thousands of laws, but she never obeyed one. She despised the frankness of the good, and gave herself up to flatters.

That was her misfortune. Her head was too full, but her heart was too vain. She loved nobody but herself, and she wished that all should love her.

False Finda! Honey-sweet were her words, but those who trusted them found sorrow at hand.

Selfish Finda! She wished to rule everybody, and her sons were like her. They made their sisters serve them, and they slew each other for the mastery.

Treacherous Finda! She died in the bloom of her age, and the mode of her death is unknown.

Hypocritical children! Her corpse was buried under a costly stone, pompous inscriptions were written on it, and loud lamentations were heard at it, but in private not a tear was shed.

Despicable people! The laws that Finda established were written on golden tablets, but the object for which they were made was never attained. The good laws were abolished, and selfishness instituted bad ones in their place. O Finda! Then the earth overflowed with blood, and your children were mown down like grass. Yes Finda! Those were the fruits of your vanity. Look down from your watch-star and weep.

Frya was white like the snow at sunrise, and the blue of her eyes vied with the rainbow.

Beautiful Frya! Like the rays of the sun shone the locks of her hair, which were as fine as spiders webs.

Clever Frya! At the glance of her eye the lion lay down at her feet and the adder withheld his poison.

Pure Frya! Her food was honey, and her beverage was dew gathered from the cups of the flowers.

Sensible Frya! The first lesson that she taught her children was self-control, and the second was the lover of virtue; and when they were grown she taught them the value of liberty; for she said, "Without liberty all other virtues serve to make you slaves, and to disgrace your origin."

Generous Frya! She never allowed metal to be dug from the earth for her own benefit, but when she did it, it was for the general use.

Most happy Frya! Like the starry host in the firmament, her children clustered around her.

Wise Frya! When she had seen her children reach the seventh generation, she summoned them all to Flyland, and there gave them her Tex, saying, "Let this be your guide, and it can never go ill with you."

Exalted Frya! When she had thus spoken the earth shook like the sea of Wr-Alda. The ground of Flyland sunk beneath her feet, the air was dimmed by tears, and when they looked for their mother she was already risen to her watching star; then at length thunder burst from the clouds, and the lightning wrote upon the firmament: "Watch!"

Farseeing Frya! The land from which she had risen was now a stream, and except her Tex all that was in it was overwhelmed.

Obedient children! When they came to themselves again, they made this high mound and built this citadel upon it, and on the walls they wrote the Tex, and that every one should be able to find it they called the land about it Texland. Therefore it shall remain as long as the earth shall be the earth.

We continue with Apollonias additions to the "Book of Adela" from the "Oldest Doctrine" to show what was recorded about their homeland or Atland (Aldland or Old Land) as the sailors referred to it. They remembered it fondly, but it was more than a Garden of Eden because it was the cultural center for a very diverse and ancient people who were spread from the Atlantic to the Ural Mountains where the Slavonic and Scythian races were once remembered as Fryas people.

In reading the description of the geography of Atland, it is difficult to place it with any certainty upon a modern map. It does not necessarily show it to be a separate island or subcontinent that descriptions of Atlantis usually conjure up in the mind. It could have been no more than a western extension of present day Europe in the North sea like a huge Helgoland, a North Sea bank or the lost alluvial lands built up at the mouths of the major rivers. If the account is true, then there is no question that the catastrophe referred to was of major, global proportions. The directions of the compass, or more correctly, the directions of the rising and setting of the sun so described, are difficult to correlate to todays geography. It is possible that an imbalance in the masses of the earths crust could suddenly shift whole continents so that the earth looks like it has flipped or shifted its poles. It is impossible that such a huge momentum inherent in the spin of the earth itself could have changed in any recorded time.

Temples have been dated in Egypt and South America to an age probably older than 2193 BC. These edifices show a north-south or even a specific star alignment that is very accurate according to todays positions. The star alignments have to take into account the precession of the earth, a fact that has been used to date them but it makes it all very unlikely that any global shift has occurred in recorded times. A shift of exactly ninety degrees is possible but highly improbable, but it is intriguing as the following description does locate Aldland at ninety degrees to common understanding.

Nevertheless, all cultures have stories of floods and disasters. It would be very interesting if some of these different stories could be specifically dated to 2193 BC. We have to bear in mind that this was not the popular understanding of the Atlantis of Plato or the Flood of Genesis. These events, should they have occurred, would have predated Atland by seven to nine thousand years.

This Stands Inscribed Upon All Citadels:

Before the bad time came our country was the most beautiful in the world. The sun rose higher, and there was seldom frost. The trees and shrubs produced various fruits, which are now lost. In the fields we had not only barley, oats and rye, but wheat which shone like gold, and which could be baked in the suns rays. The years were not counted, for one was as happy as another.

On one side we were bounded by Wr-Aldas Sea, on which no one but us might or could sail; on the other side we were hedged in by the broad German land through which the Finda people dared not come on account of the thick forests and the wild beasts.

Eastward our boundary went to the extremity of the East Sea (Black Sea), and westward to the Mediterranean Sea; so that besides the small rivers we had twelve large rivers given us by Wr-Alda to keep our land moist, and to show our seafaring men the way to His sea.

The banks of these rivers were at one time entirely inhabited by our people as well as the banks of the Rhine from one end to the other. Opposite Denmark and Jutland we had colonies and a burgtmaid. Thence we obtained copper and iron, as well as tar and pitch, and some other necessaries. Opposite to us we had Britain, formerly Westland, with her tin mines. Britain was the land of the exiles, who with the help of their burgtmaid had gone away to save their lives; but in order that they might not come back they were tattooed with a "B" on the forehead, the banished with a red dye, the other criminals with blue.

Moreover, our sailors and merchants had many factories among the distant Cretans and in Lydia (Libya). In Lydia the people are black. As our country was so great and extensive, we had many different names. Those who were settled to the east of Denmark were called Jutten, because often they did nothing else than look for jutten (amber) on the shore. Those who lived in the islands were called Letten, because they lived an isolated life. All those who lived between Denmark and the Sandval, now the Scheldt, were called Stuurlieden, Zeecampers and Angelaren (boatmen, shore-dwellers and fishermen). The Angelaren were men who fished in the sea, and were so named because they used lines and hooks instead of nets. From there to the nearest part of Crete the inhabitants were called Kadhemers, because they never went to sea but remained ashore.

Those who were settled in the higher marches bounded by Germany - were called Saxons, because they were always armed against the wild beasts and the savage Britons. Besides these we had Marsaten, and Woud or Hout Zaten (marsh-dwellers and woodsmen).

From the section called The Book of Adelas Followers, there is the only description of the disaster. It is entitled How the Bad Time Came. It tells of a psychological warning of how people felt before the event that apparently extended over three years. If there were warnings of a physical nature it could have been in the form of subsonic rumblings. It is widely believed that animals can detect some earthquake warning phenomena then so must humans if we could tune into it.

The description of some lands rising while others sank would be consistent with a balanced geological disturbance. The forest fires could have been caused by either lightning strikes or by volcanic eruptions or even both. The purpose of this book is not to speculate with a series of "What if"s or to try to verify the material of the Oera Linda Book. The purpose is simply to present this information in a readable form. We are all curious about these phenomena, especially today when there is much talk of earthquakes, new ages et cetera. Be that as it may, the material is very entertaining, but a serious advocate must consult the original material and relate it to what modern open-minded research can find.

In the remoter regions of the continental nation, the thinning of the forest barriers permitted Findas people to move westwards and settle onto some of the devastated or deserted regions while the Slavonic communities were lost to freedom and gave the word "slave" to our vocabulary. A new era began as the Age of Taurus gave way to the Age of Aries.

How The Bad Time Came:

During the whole summer the sun had been hid behind the clouds, as if unwilling to look upon the earth. There was perpetual calm, and the damp mist hung like a wet sail over the houses and the marshes. The air was heavy and oppressive, and in hearts of men was neither joy nor cheerfulness. In the midst of this stillness the earth began to tremble as if she was dying. The mountains opened to vomit forth fire and flames. Some sank into the bosom of the earth, and in other places mountains rose out of the plain. Aldland, called by the seafaring people Atland, disappeared, and the wild waves rose so high over hill and dale that everything was buried in the sea. Many people were swallowed up by the earth, and others who had escaped the fire perished in the water.

It was not only in Findas land that the earth vomited fire, but also in Germany. Whole forests were burned one after the other, and when the wind blew from that quarter, our land was covered with ashes. Rivers changed their course, and at their mouths new islands were formed of sand and drift.

During three years this continued, but at length it ceased, and forests became visible. Many countries were submerged, and in other places land rose above the sea, and the wood was destroyed throughout half of Germany. Troops of Findas people came and settled in the empty places. Our dispersed people were exterminated or made slaves. Then watchfulness was doubly impressed upon us, and time taught us that union is force.

After the disaster, Frya, the Mother Goddess of Europe leaves her abode at the mouth of the Fly river, and "ascends to heaven," but before disappearing she leaves her Tex with her children and recognizes her Maiden Fasta as her earthly successor. Her Tex was her counsel. It is not so much the basis of the temporal laws that followed but a social and spiritual code. She hints of an afterlife, she acknowledges that Wr-Alda is also the protector of the peoples of Lyda and Finda but strongly cautions her children to protect their freedoms from the other two races with which relations are strictly regulated. Even the law of karma is expressed as being beyond any secular justification. Her Tex has given us the word "Textbook" and after her time Fryasburgt became the capital of Texland where the greatest citadel in all Europe was built. The Tex is given in the Appendix.

A comment is needed at this point on the language and alphabet used to record these laws and events. The Oera Linda Book may have been copied in 1256 AD by Hiddo Over de Linda, but it specifically refers to the wall inscriptions that were themselves copied in the six century BC onto paper or skrivfilt. They in turn refer to wall inscriptions that were recorded as early as 2000 BC. It makes reference to their written language being with little change until the influences at the end of the fourth century BC.

It is generally recognized that writing began in the land of Sumer in hieroglyphic form about six thousand years ago. It may have been much earlier as references to pre-Deluvian texts are made in Sumer and that could make writing at least thirteen thousand years old. Hieroglyphics gave way to cuneiform or wedge marks in soft clay as a more convenient and faster way of recording events and contracts. The cuneiform symbols were like scripted styles of the original hieroglyphics. They were not a new or phonetic code, the symbols represented whole root words, the meaning of which was very dependent on the context. This in turn became Akkadian cuneiform, which represented consonants only, vowels were missing, and then it evolved into other Semitic alphabets used in Egypt and the Fertile Crescent.

The sea-trading nation of Phoenicia is credited with the first phonetic alphabet coming out of the North Semitic one about the eleventh century BC. It has given its name to our alphabet and in turn was supposed to have influenced the Greek alphabet, which through Rome gave our current West European versions. It was an alphabet of twenty-two characters, writing consonants only, from right-to-left and continued to evolve for another thousand years. Does this appear to be the forerunner of what you are now reading? The Greek alphabet has Phoenicians characters but Semitic names and writes from left-to-right. The Oera Linda Book tells a different story. Frya deliberately constructed a phonetic alphabet out of segments of a six-spoked wheel or jule, symbolic for the sun sign, a day or a year. The alphabet consisted of thirty-three characters. (See Plate I). This was taught to Fasta and the tradition of literacy was institutionalized in the citadels with very little changes from twenty-three hundred BC to twelve hundred AD when the book was last copied into Old Frisian.

Isidore of Seville wrote in the early seventh century that the alphabet was invented by the Goddess herself but locates her in Greece. He attributes the ordinary Greek alphabet to the Phoenicians. Soon after the "standing" invention, a freehand alphabet was developed called "running" which has given us the runic characters although within the next two thousand years that form became straightened out again because of its use in carvings where curves are harder to accomplish. Very early on, decimal numbers were added by a sea-king named Godfried; they were no doubt a commercial necessity. There are many references to Phoenician traders, both their coming to the Atlantic nations and the Rhine fleets going to the Mediterranean so they did interact, trade and compete. The Book relates how the Phoenician people came from a mixture of Rhinelanders and Finns with no doubt a portion of Lydas people from Tunisia, mixing with the inhabitants of Sidon.

It is known that languages and alphabets travel via trade, not migrations of people. The American version of English is an example of that, being used by the majority of citizens whose ancestors never spoke English.

Commerce cannot be accomplished without a number system and here again we miss-give the credit to the Arabs. They write from right to left like in the East but record numbers from left to right like in the West. Just look at arabic numbers. The important invention of the zero that was not part of the cumbersome Roman system is dated to the Middle Ages in Europe. Our symbol for zero in Arabic represents their number five and besides we have here, recorded in this book, numerical dates and quantities millennia before any Arab civilization. Most Semitic based languages solved the number problem by assigning a numerical value to each letter in their particular alphabetical sequence. The hieroglyphic languages on both the Old and the New world used a weighted building block system to count in numerical quantities such as six, ten, twenty, sixty and higher.

Because of the connections between Minno, a sixteenth century BC sea-king from the Rhine, and Crete the alphabets found on Crete should be mentioned. Dating from 1700 BC, clay tablets using a cipher referred to as Linear A have been found throughout Crete. It replaced an earlier hieroglyphic form, is written from left to right and was apparently used mainly for inventories, not literature. The language inscribed with the characters of Linear A is unknown but is presumed to be Minoan. These syllabic glyphs are believed to be forerunners of Linear B which was deciphered in 1952 and found to be early or Mycenaean Greek used from 1400 to 1150 BC only in Knossos. Throughout the long period of heroic history and into classical times, the alphabets made many changes, particularly to meet the needs of different languages that had "borrowed" their alphabets. This process does not appear to have happened until much later in the countries of origin or west Europe until the fourth century BC when many nations splintered off the motherland. The names of Classical Greek characters come from Hebrew or perhaps the related Hittite but the language and the symbols do not.

Again it is not the intention to prove or disprove this information but only to present it for what can be very interesting discussions. Here follows a section concerning the alphabet that comes from the "Writings of Minno" an ancient sea-king and was taken from the walls of an important sea-trading center. The date of the original inscriptions was probably the sixteenth century BC.

What Is Written Hereunder Is Inscribed On The Walls of Waraburgt:

What appears at the top is the signs of the Jule - that is, the first symbol of Wr-Alda, also of the origin or beginning from which Time is derived; this is the Kroder, which must always go round with the Jule. According to this model Frya formed the set hand which she used to write her Tex. When Fasta was Earth Mother she made a running hand out of it. The Witkoning - that is, the Sea-king Godfried the Old - made separate numbers for the set hand and for the runic hand. It is therefore not too much that we celebrate it once a year. We may be eternally thankful to Wr-Alda that he allowed his spirit to exercise such an influence over our forefathers.

In her time Finda also invented a mode of writing, but that was so high-flown and full of flourishes that her descendants have soon lost the meaning of it.

Afterwards they learned our writing - that is, the Finns, the Thyriers, (seamen of Tyre) and the Cretans - but they did not know that it was taken from the Jule, and must therefore always be written round like the sun. Furthermore, they wished that their writing should be illegible by other people, because they always had matters to conceal. In doing this they acted very unwisely, because their children could only with great difficulty read the writings of their predecessors, whereas our most ancient writings are as easy to read as those that were written yesterday.

When Christianity was struggling to replace the pagan religions of Western Europe, it is known that some propaganda devices were used to dissuade adherence to the old ways. One of these was the invention of the unlucky number, "thirteen," and in particular, "Friday the thirteenth." Friday was Fryas day and thirteen represented the number of twenty-eight day months in a year. (13 x 28 = 364).

Apparently a thirteen-month calendar was in use before the old Roman calendar that dated from the founding of Rome. The early Vedic calendar did use a twenty-eight day month with a leap-month every sixty months but most Hindu reckonings since then have used lunar calendars. The Egyptians had standardized on a thirty day month and the Greeks had adopted this system which probably influenced that early calendar, reformed by Tarquinius Priscius (616-579 BC), the fifth king of Rome. Prior to his time, the calendar had six months of thirty days and four of thirty-one days giving a total of only 304 days that were counted. After each winter break, it was restarted in March. One ancient vestige of the Teutons does survive and that is, the custom of counting nights instead of days. We have the fortnight or fourteen-night system, which is half of a twenty-eight day month.

Because the priests and senators of Rome had manipulated the calendar for political purposes, Julius Caesar felt the need to reform it, leaving us essentially the system used by the early Christians for 550 years. In the sixth century AD, it was proposed that the calendar be dated from the birth of Christ. They knew He had been born in the 28thyear of the reign of the emperor Augustus but forgot that he had already ruled for four years as Octavius before the senate conferred that august title on him, thus our modern calendar should have been dated from 4 BC.

The Julian Calendar had a total of 365 days and did contain one twenty-eight day month (with no weeks) that was relegated to the minor gods. In recent times, the International Fixed Calendar has been proposed in which the year is divided into thirteen months of twenty-eight days with an extra day at the end. Perhaps men are no longer feeling intimidated by the magic of the twenty-eight day menstrual cycle, a cycle close to but more easily facilitated than multiples of the lunar month of approximately 29 days. The concept however is not very original for such a calendar was in common use until the eighteenth century in spite of church influence. A twenty-eight day period was known as the ancient common month. Have we not all heard of the phrase, "a year and a day" and are there not many different references to the number thirteen?

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