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From Goddess to King, Chapter 1, MODERN DISCOVERY

FROM GODDESS TO KING

A History of Ancient Europe from the

OERA LINDA BOOK

By Anthony Radford

CHAPTER 1

MODERN DISCOVERY

radford-chapter-01

Frontpage of the first English translation of the Oera Linda Book.

InApril of 1820, at the small town of Enkhuizen opposite the West Frisian Island of Texel in the Netherlands, Den Heer Andries Over de Linden died. Among his effects was found a very old manuscript that no one could read. He was sixty-one years old and his daughter, then Mrs. Aafjie Meylhoff, knew how a long and sacred tradition had always existed in their family concerning this book. For countless generations since before anyone could remember, it had been kept in the Over de Linden family, being handed down from father to son, with very strict instructions to preserve and protect it from the authorities, and that meant the Church. The next heir at that time was her nephew, Cornelius Over de Linden, who was only ten years of age, his father having died several years before the grandfather. His aunt, Aafjie, kept the book in safekeeping awaiting the time when the next custodian would be of age.

Cornelius grew up in the same area where his ancestors had always lived, and became a master shipwright of the Royal Netherlands Dockyards at the Helder, but it was not until 1848, that Mrs. Meylhoff handed over the manuscript with all the traditional instructions to her nephew. Always he had been curious about the story the book told, the story he could not read, but still he waited an additional nineteen years before taking the initiative, in 1867, to find someone who could translate the manuscript. He approached the Provincial Library at Leeuwarden in Friesland where the librarian, Dr. Verwijs, on hearing about the manuscript asked to see it. He immediately recognized it as very ancient Frisian, perhaps the oldest example of it he had yet encountered. His first impression was that the book was some kind of hoax, but on examination, he was convinced of its extreme age. Consequently, with much excitement, he persuaded Cornelius Over de Linden to let him make a careful copy of the whole book for the benefit of the Friesland Society.

Dr. Verwijs then sought financial backing from the Society that was devoted to research of the Frisian language and history but was met with immediate skepticism. Perhaps he was too revealing of some opening fragments he had already translated. The Society thought it was a forgery from the beginning, even before being able to consult it, setting a tone that has haunted the Oera Linda Book ever since. Dr. Verwijs was, however, successful in receiving a commission from a deputy states alderman of Friesland to edit a copy. This meant his library facilities could sanction the work while funding was being sought.

The work continued for another three years revealing startling and fantastic information that initially confirmed Dr. Verwijs first suspicions of forgery, but as he continued to translate, more and more stories supported known historical and mythological data and won the complete confidence of the translator. That is to say, so far as the history it contained was related, for the book contained its own mythology which could be recognized as such just as the well known Greek and Old Testament stories were not always taken literally. Eventually, financial assistance did come in the person of Dr. J. G. Ottema, who enthusiastically supported the expenses of the translation, printing and publishing the first copy in modern Frisian under the title of "Thet Oera Linda Bok".

In February, 1871, a paper was presented to the Friesland Society that summarized these origins and mentioned a few of the startling statements found in its contents, causing instant controversy. Why that was so is perhaps not surprising if we look at these statements but first the reader must magnify the attachments of the present time to the long cherished beliefs of a church or temple dominated heritage, to understand the attitudes of the time. Science was replacing theology in history and anthropology. The discovery and subsequent translation of the Rosetta Stone had occurred only fifty years earlier, giving birth to the modern concepts of ancient history based on the Egyptian calendar, right or wrong.

We have since discovered the much older civilization of Sumer and yet most text books still give this honor to Egypt. Heinrich Schlieman had not yet published his discoveries concerning the actual historical site of Troy, a town mentioned and even datable in the Book. Legends were still considered fairy tales without any factual content as indeed many consider them today. More importantly, we have a long standing tradition of the classical scholars surviving in Europe, through the translations of the Church and verified with several hundred years of second sourcing through Arabic in Spain of the same Greek originals. First come ideas are very hard to challenge.

The Frisian language version was immediately followed by a Dutch language translation of the same name and it was the Dutch version that was translated into English in 1876. This edition shows the original Frisian text printed on the left page in Roman characters with the English translation on the right. It created quite a stir when published but was soon forgotten in academic circles; too controversial or perhaps it meant too much effort to rethink our traditional ideas.

The original manuscript uses what are now called phonetic characters with arabic numerals but with its own form of construction. These phonetic characters are selected from a circle, the sun sign, with a vertical "I" and an "X" crossing it giving surprisingly, a character set or context in which most letters of the alphabet and numbers are easily recognized by modern Europeans and Americans. They were recorded by Hiddo, surnamed Over de Linda in the year 1256 AD. He copied his originals onto the new arabic paper, very desirable in Europe at the time, which was made from basic Egyptian cotton without watermark. He called it foreign paper and used a carbon ink without iron. This was fortunate because the more popular iron based inks were used at a later date and are easily recognizable by their discoloration, giving us one more piece of evidence to support the Books authenticity. The opening page by Hiddo, is a letter to his son Okke with instructions to "Preserve these books with body and soul."

How many of the works of the original eight or more authors were copied or else translated into Hiddos language of the time is not known. Did he use the characters current in his land or did he painstakingly transcribe his damaged source material? We know that some terms modern to him were used and we also know that the style and variant spelling of the original writers were preserved. No evidence of anything more modern than the thirteenth century has been found, but even some place names created by the Roman occupation in the time of Julius Caesar were not used in the text.

Challenges there were, revealed by the Oera Linda Book. Did European civilization come out of Asia in the East or was there a western source as well and what was that? No claim is being made about the origins of civilized communities in the world but the Book claims a western source for its own system of government, community and moral code for Europe. There are even descriptions of a much more ancient community across the north Atlantic, the Old Land, their ancient home, that are given in nostalgic terms as the good times before the bad.

Did our concepts of common law and democracy come from Asia through classical Greece and Rome? We will read about a democratic system of government using the endowments of both men and women for their respective advantages. The world would have to wait until late in the nineteenth century for a similar equality, both domestic and also at the highest government level, to be found again in Europe. The Matriarchal Age as described in the Book was one of cooperation, not dominance by any sex or monarch but this however, was a heritage lost to the corruption that power always engenders. Our Eastern heritage has always been dominated by male autocrats but this book describes a time before the democracies or oligarchies of the Greek city states whose own fervor fall very short of the ideals expressed. There are many sections recorded for the explicit purpose of protecting these democratic rights and freedoms.

Is the generally understood concept of the evolution of European languages correct? Both Latin and Greek are younger languages than the precursors of the West German group and have received many root words from the latter, and even the Persian language has more Germanic root words than any other source. If you open your dictionary to the familiar page of the family tree of European languages you see that the invented Indo-European gives rise to Indian, Iranian, Armenian, Albanian, Balto-Slavic, Germanic, Hellenic, Italic and Keltic, a convenient way of showing that the scholars do not know this story. A distinction has to be made between the form of the alphabet characters used, the names of the alphabet letters, their sequence and the number system in use. Each of these characteristics can evolve separately and be taken from very different sources.

The Book describes the settlement of familiar peoples like the Finns, Phoenicians, Tunisians, Gauls, Britons, Celts, Cretans, Greeks, Ionians, Danes, Franks and Scots. Many more are named in India and the countries to the west of the Punjab. It tells of extensive trade between nations, which is more important for the adoption of languages than the actual settlement of peoples. It even describes how different peoples were corrupting the "mother tongue".

On the language tree commonly found in dictionaries, Old Frisian is a "generation" or two younger than the classical languages but this book is written in and laments its own language deterioration of a time before Latin, before Greek. Was this Indo-European? They write of trade and settlement in India in 1550 BC by the sea-kings of the Rhine. They even tell the story of the settlement of Phoenicia five hundred years before that and how their written language which is clearly related to what we use today, was adopted by the Phoenician traders. This was probably the origin of the Greek alphabet, the symbols that is, and not necessarily their names which is of a much more modern construction.

In the beginnings of recorded history, a number system, a means of recording the quantities of trades or taxes began in the East with clay representations of the items, pressed or represented as many times as the quantity transacted. Then variant symbols were used to represent larger packages or groupings of these items. It can be understood how impossible this would soon become to a maritime nation dealing with the diverse products of foreign nations and so a new system was worked out in the West.

In the East the order of the particular alphabets was used at that time to represent a weighted number system but clearly it has its limitations with international trade where different alphabets or sequence of letters were in use. These arguments imply that records would have to be shared in order to trade or barter and particularly if any contracts for future delivery were to be made and this is one reason why languages follow trade rather than the migrations of peoples.

The story of the sea-kings is the commercial history of Europe for we are told how important these huge organized expeditions were to the life-styles of the Europeans even to those as remote as Switzerland who traded in items destined to fill the bottoms of the ships. The sea-king or "Witkoning" was elected to command these well-armed trading expeditions. The Book tells us of one old sea-king of about four thousand years ago, who devised a weighted-number system of symbols that were deliberately constructed not long after the invention of the phonetic alphabet and in the same style. This is essentially what we are using today and calling it arabic but if it were also called phonetic it would not be a contradiction of this cherished belief. This is because the Phoenicians began their history at this time as a direct result of the actions of a sea-king from the Rhine. They were a racially mixed group from Western Europe that founded Tyre or Thyrhisburgt, a city south of older Sidon. Their maritime skills and tribal groups did not directly come from the East the priests of Sidon were soon to influenced their religious and political systems.

Some of the heroes of Homer and gods and goddesses of ancient Greece are described as real historical personages such as Hestia, Neptune, Minerva, Calypso and Ulysses. Then we read of the European gods, Wodin and Frya, (Odin and Freya) of mythological names such as the Magi, Celtics, and dozens of place names and how they came to be so named. This book is an etymologists delight. Word origins of the Druids, Gaul, the Vestal Virgins, even Calypso and magic are mentioned.

With these challenges to established ideas, there is no question the new translations were very sensational to the academic community who on the whole assured everyone that it was a hoax. European newspapers were quick to print defamatory letters and articles from persons who had not studied the contents of the translations and obviously not the original.

Following the English language translation from the Dutch, London newspapers gave the book a brief notoriety but there was little serious study and even less of its ideas and information entering the history books. It was basically forgotten. In the nineteen-twenties a few articles and some books were published but most of them defamatory. It is now time to take a new look at what this remarkable history of a nearly forgotten people actually says because it is our story too.

These challenges to established beliefs were hard enough to take but when their own mythology, recorded by them in the same style as their history was revealed, it was too much for the new scientific scholars to stand. They forgot our own myths and how some have been shown to tell of real personages. We have the stories of the Flood and Atlantis. They had stories of geological catastrophes and of Atland, the "Old Land". They are not to be confused with those stories which are believed to be describing a time of possibly eleven thousand years ago such as Platos Atlantis but it is most likely that some of these stories have been incorporated into the writings of Plato. Their events were quite precisely dated and recorded by them as fact and cover a time span of from 2193 BC to 70 BC.

We have inherited traditional zodiacal terminology from Sumer and they are still used by modern astronomers. Using these names we put the Age of Aries at from 2220 BC to 60 BC so that this book is really a European story of the Age of Aries. There were other books referred to in the text, books that came about as a deliberate attempt to record their history before it was lost. These were written on instructions by one of the last of the earth mothers; one who herself was never elected to that office, but unfortunately they have not survived.

This is really the story of the decline and fall of the Matriarchal Age of Europe and the relentless pressure of the invasion of the original white peoples of Europe by the yellow peoples of Asia. Only some of the more isolated populations of Holland and Scandinavia show surviving examples of this blood line today.

Apparently much of Europe had once enjoyed a citadel system for their society and government. Each diverse community had their councils of Aldermen to make their economic laws that filled their defensive and land-use requirements but these decisions had to meet the strict guidelines of the sacred `Tex or constitution to ensure justice and freedom for all. The citadels housed the maidens, with a copy of the "Tex" inscribed on the walls together with proud moments from their histories. The priestesses by their scholarship determined appeals much as our own Supreme Court does now. The head maiden or virgin was called a mother and was in correspondence with the mothers of other cities.

The Earth Mother was elected from candidates that were often recommended from the various citadels by the previous Earth Mother in her will. She resided at the most important and largest citadel that was located at Fryasburgt in Texland near the northern mouth of the Rhine that they called Flymeer or the mouth of the Fly River. Her duties were exemplary for the protection of the ethical welfare of the continent but she was also able to call a national levy for the defense of the whole confederation.

There is no European race or color characteristic corresponding to that which can be identified in most other places of the globe. The straight black hair and brown eyes of the yellow skinned Asiatic invaders have interbred with the fine straight yellow hair, blue eyes of the tall white indigenous race to create the mixed hair and eye coloring found in individual families today of so-called Europeans. Varying degrees of crinkly-haired black people from Africa were also bred into the mix depending on location and on the journeys of the sea-kings that often used foreign rowers. When the black blood mixed directly with the original white blood the result could be red, that new human coloring with wavy hair, white skin and freckles, not really one that could have survived a million years of natural selection without the protections that civilized communities afford. Even today when some Melanesians form blood families with a genetic survivor of the white race the result can be piebald, and take generations to blend into normal freckles.

These European peoples whose only common name was "friends" or the "Children of Frya" wanted to protect their culture and freedom from the priests and princes of the invaders. Their laws show a strong educational and even propaganda aspect designed to save their democratic system based on their constitution that protected the rights of individuals. It also cared for the less fortunate members of society instilling a moral code of self-reliance and cooperation. Our present country in North America was founded with these concepts and in its young days of settlement and expansion, families did more than just barn-raising for their communities. Many of these basic feelings of community are now buried too deep as individual profit is placed above community service.

Who were the contributors to the Book? The Book and apparently others that have not survived were written at the direct request of Adela, described herein as the un-elected Earth Mother about 560 BC. She was afraid their long history and customs would be lost with the invasions of the Magyars and Finns that were causing such devastation at the time. They had already invaded and killed the Earth Mother at their federal capital of Fryasburgt in Texland and were within striking distance of Adelas own family compound. They were soon to kill both Adela and her husband Apol but this was not to be the end of the Frisians as a resurgence occurred that took another four hundred years to be lost again. This time it was lost to cultural changes, not conquest as the ways of freedom gave way to the ways of the royal tyrants that even in modern times have inspired an undeserved loyalty or dependence.

The writers of the Book (see plate 8), were for the most part descendants of Adela in the Oera Linda family. At first they copied down the inscriptions from the walls of the citadels and great trading ports that were originally inscribed fifteen hundred years earlier. This has given us a precious insight into history before the age of the classical myths, an insight showing real historical personages that in some cases were deified for political advantage and in other cases because the social conditions had deteriorated to the level of superstition and witchcraft.

After recording their own history, the various writers wrote of their own times. Those sections have information that came more closely to direct observation and they are rich in personal stories of this family and their countrymen in times of triumph and the struggles of defeat, defeat of their principles. We are given an observation into the final process of the deposition of the cooperative matriarchal age by the dominating patriarchal one, an age that we have only now begun to question in this century.

There are stories told that are as exciting as any romantic novel or panoramic screen, telling us how little changed we are after thousands of years. How our desires and ambitions are forever wrestling with our social conscience and how the virtuous get little reward beyond their own virtue in the real world. But in spite of the over all, very long term demise of this way of life, it has left its mark upon us in many ways. It has marked the conscience of the whole world, not just a racially protective group in Western Europe. Seen with cosmic eyes over millennia who is to say the world took a backward step? Who is to say that the final outcome will not be at a higher level of consciousness for all concerned? We are still playing this drama and the last characters have not yet come onto stage.

In this publication a modern language rendition of the Oera Linda Book is given in serif typeface, with new place name spellings whenever it is more readable and wherever they are known. The author summarizes and comments on the story recorded in the Book after relating the generally believed version if known. Following this is the actual translation and how it may change our own concepts of history except where the information is totally new. If a reader has an interest in continuing the controversy or validating any feature, he or she is invited to study the original.

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