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The Book of Jasher

Referred to in Joshua and Second Samuel

Faithfully Translated



NOTE : According to some sources, this book was once the original start of the Bible. Originally translated from Hebrew in A.D. 800, "The Book of Jasher" was suppressed, then rediscovered in 1829 when it was once again suppressed. Reemerged again, in his preface Alcuin writes the reference to Jasher in 2 Samuel authenticates this book .

The root of the first book of Jasher must be written BEFORE the time of Joshua and Samuel in the Bible because both books refers to the book of Jasher.

"Is not this written in the Book of Jasher?"--Joshua, 10,13.

"Behold it is written in the Book of Jasher."--II. Samuel, 1,18

The Book of Jasher Intro

The Book of Jasher

Referred to in Joshua and Second Samuel

Faithfully Translated




by Dr. Kenneth Johnson

This work is recommended reading by Joshua 10:13 and 2 Samuel 1:18. It contains about three times as much information as Genesis, covering the same time period.

There are several books which have come down to us by this title today.

One is an ethical treaty from the Middle Ages and to my knowledge has never been translated into English. This book begins with a section on the Mystery of the Creation of the World." It is clearly unrelated to the Biblical Book of Jasher.

Another is a forgery published in 1829 supposedly translated by Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus. It opens with the Chapter 1 verse 1 reading: "Whilst it was the beginning, darkness overspread the face of nature."

The third and most important is a Midrash first translated into English in 1840.

It opens with chapter 1 verse 1 reading "And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness, and God created man in his own image." A comparison of Joshua 10:13 with Jasher 88:63-64 and 2Sam. 1:18 with Jasher 56:9 makes it clear that this Book of Jasher at least claims to be the "lost" Book of Jasher mentioned in the Bible.

The book that is published on this website is the last mentioned. (3)

The following is a list of inaccuracies or scribal errors:





Cain killed Abel with a Plough or rock.

See Jubilees


Lamek 180 should be 182,


Ch. 10

Terah died should be Peleg


Sarahs Abrahams niece

See Josephus

P 32??

Haran 32 when Abram was born



Jerad 162 not 62



Methuselah 187 not 87

4:9 shows this


210 years in Egypt

See Josephus

"Is not this written in the Book of Jasher?" -- Joshua 10:13. "And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day." (Joshua 10:13)

"Behold, it is written in the Book of Jasher" -- II Samuel 1:18. (Also he bade them teach the children of Judah the use of the bow: behold, it is written in the book of Jasher.) 2 Samuel 1:18.

The Book of Jasher Uncloaked!

Virtually ignored since it was discovered, the Book of Jasher holds vital clues to interpreting and understanding Biblical chronology, from the Flood to the Exodus. A mistake made by Archbishop James Ussher, who was unfamiliar with the book of Jasher, led to a 60-year error in placing the birth of Abraham. But this error is corrected in the chrono- logical keys provided by the book of Jasher. And with these keys, an intriguing, and astounding story emerges.

William F. Dankenbring

The book of Jasher, mentioned in the Biblical books of Joshua and Second Chronicles, was faithfully translated into English from the Rabbinical Hebrew in approximately A.D. 1840. Says the translator's preface, "the ever memorable events and transactions recorded in Scripture are with many others of the most interesting nature, comprehended in the Book of Jasher; and they are all arrayed in that style of simple, unadorned majesty and precision, which so particularly distinguishes the genius of the Hebrew language/ and this, together with other numerous internal evidences, it is presumed will go far to convince the Hebrew scholar that the book is, with the exception of some doubtful parts, a venerable monument of antiquity; and that, notwithstanding some few additions may have been made to it in comparatively modern times, it still retains sufficient to prove it a copy of the book referred to in Joshua, chapter x, and 2 Samuel, chap. i. There are not more than seven or eight words in the whole book that by construction can be derived from the Chaldean language" (page iii-iv).

The title of the book in Hebrew, Sephir Ha Yasher, literally means "the book of the upright," or "the upright or correct record." Some have thought that "Jasher" was the name of a Hebrew judge in Israel, and a publication that arose in the middle of the eighteenth century (circa 1750 A.D.), purported itself to be a translation into English from a Hebrew manuscript of "Jasher" found at Gazna in Persia. That book appears to have been a fictitious book, a fraud, and most probably the work of some agnostic, cynical English skeptic, written in imitation of the language of Scripture. Its author, in his ignorance, presumed "Jasher" to have been the personal name of an ancient Hebrew figure, the original writer. But the mischievous deed was recognized by true scholars of Hebrew, for the pronoun "the" ("ha" in Hebrew) never precedes or is prefixed to proper names.

How is the Book of Jasher important to us, today? It sheds marvelous light on the Biblical story, from the time of Adam and Eve, the time of Enoch, and the account of Noah's Deluge, to the Tower of Babel, the tyrant Nimrod, and the story of Abraham and his descendants. Needless to say, I cannot discuss the details of this remarkable historical record, which completely authenticates and corroborates Scriptural history, filling in many missing details deleted in the Scriptural record, in this article. I highly recommend the book for any who desire to perfect their knowledge of the ancient times, from Adam to the Exodus.

The book of Jasher provides a fascinating glimpse into the life of Enoch, who was a righteous ruler over men, continually instructing them in truth and uprightness, and a knowledge of the Most High God. It also tells us that in the days of "Peleg," not only were the nations at Babel divided and scattered, but the earth itself was also divided. From this book we also learn that Noah and Abraham were contemporaries.

Perhaps the most important key found in the Book of Jasher is that it corrects the erroneous chronological date for the birth of Abraham assumed by many Christian commentators, in particular archbishop James Ussher. Says the Translator of the book of Jasher:

"From this book we learn that Noah and Abraham were contemporaries. How beautiful the contemplation of the meeting of these two Patriarchs, the one being a monument of God's mercy, the other having the promises of the favor and grace of God, not only to himself, but to his seed after him. This fact might be proved from Scripture; but from the 32nd verse in the 11th chapter of Genesis, most of the Christian commentators have erroneously dated the birth of Abraham 60 years later than it actually took place; as it is generally stated that he was born AM (after man, i.e., after Adam) 2008, whereas the regular calculation in the Bible leads us to 60 years earlier, viz. 1948. The only cause of this error has been that Abraham's departure from Haran, at the age of 75, is recorded close to the description of the death of Terah, at the age of 205, in Gen. ch. xi, v. 32" (p.vi).

How should we view the book of Jasher, today? The translator correctly points out that although it is not divine Scripture, it nevertheless is a mighty historical and ancient work which relates directly to Biblical historical times and events. Thus the translator does not recommend it to people as Scripture, as a work of divine inspiration, but does "as a monument of history, comparatively covered with the ivy of the remotest ages; as a work, possessing in its language, all the characteristic simplicity of patriarchal times; and as such, he conceives it peculiarly calculated to illustrate and confirm the sacred truths handed down to us in the Scriptures" (p.vii).

The translator concludes:

"Like all other ancient writings, (except the inspired volume,) it has in some respects suffered from the consuming hand of time; and there is reason to believe that some additions have been made to it. In fine, it contains a history of the lives and memorable transactions of all the illustrious characters recorded in sacred history, from Adam down to the time of the Elders, who immediately succeeded Joshua" (ibid.).

Having said these things, let's take a close look and see how the book of Jasher, then, impacts our understanding of ancient Biblical chronology, and what it means to us, today!

Chronology After the Flood

The book of Jasher recounts the story of mankind from Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel, to the destruction of Noah's Flood (chapters 1-6). The story of the post-Flood world begins in chapter 7 where we are told that Terah was 38 years old when he begat Haran and Nahor, the older brothers of Abraham (v.22). What year was this? According to the chronology, from the Flood, we discover that Noah was 600 years old at the time of the Flood (Gen.7:6). The Flood occurred in the year 2348 B.C. Noah's son Shem begat Arphaxad 2 years after the Flood (Gen.11:10), or in 2346 B.C. From that time on we can trace the descendants of Shem (see Genesis 11:10-26):




Date ?


35 years


2311 B.C.




2281 B.C.




2247 B.C.




2217 B.C.




2185 B.C.




2155 B.C.




2126 B.C.




2056 B.C.

At this point, the Biblical genealogy tell us, "And Terah lived seventy years, and begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran" (Gen.11:26). Yet the book of Jasher clearly states that "Terah was thirty eight years old, and he begat Haran and Nahor" (Jasher 9:22). Therefore, the fact that the Bible says Terah was 70 when he begat Abram, Nahor and Haran, must refer to the date when ABRAM was begotten -- 32 years after his two brothers. Abram was the youngest of the three, but is listed first because the birthright became his because of his righteousness and excellency.

This is a straight-forward chronology. However, it differs from that of Archbishop James Ussher. Usher, in his mammoth chronological work, concluded erroneously that Abram was born seventy five years before Terah his father died. Terah died at the age of 205 (Gen.11:32). The next chapter of Genesis tells us that God told Abram to leave his country and Abram did so at the age of 75 (Gen.12:1-4). Ussher assumes that Terah's death and Abram's departure for Canaan was the same year -- therefore, since Terah died in 1921 B.C., Abram's birth would have been, according to Ussher, 75 years sooner -- in 1996 B.C. Notice! This date is precisely 60 years later than the true date for Abram's birth! Unfortunately, Archbishop Ussher did not have access to the book of Jasher when he calculated the birth of Abram!

When this correction is made, however, it suddenly frees up our understanding of events that occurred after the Flood. Much of this illumination comes from the book of Jasher!

Nimrod and the Birth of Abram

Now let's pick up the story of Nimrod, the world's first tyrant, after the Flood. The book of Jasher gives us a very interesting insight into Nimrod's kingdom and personality. The story begins with his father Cush. We read:

"And Cush, the son of Ham, the son of Noah, took a wife in those days, in his old age, and she bare a son, and they called his name Nimrod, saying, At that time the sons of men began to rebel and transgress against God, and the child grew up, and his father loved him exceedingly, for he was the son of his old age.

"And the garments of skin, which God made for Adam and his wife, when they went out of the garden, were given to Cush. For after the death of Adam and his wife, the garments were given to Enoch, the son of Jared, and when Enoch was taken up to God, he gave them to Methuselah, his son. And at the death of Methuselah, Noah took them and brought them to the ark, and they were with him until he went out of the ark. And in their going out, Ham stole those garments from Noahhis father, and he took them and hid them from his brothers. And when Ham begat his firstborn Cush, he gave him the garments in secret, and they were with Cush many days. And Cush also concealed them from his sons and brothers, and when Cush had begotten Nimrod, he gave him those garments through his love for him, and Nimrod grew up, and when he was twenty years old he put on those garments.

"And Nimrod became strong when he put on the garments, and God gave him might and strength, and he was a mighty hunter in the earth. . . . And when Nimrod was forty years old, at that time there was war between his brethren and the children of Japheth, so that they were in the power of his enemies. . . . And when Nimrod had joyfully returned from battle, after having conquered his enemies, all his brethren . . . assembled to make him king over them, and they placed the regal crown upon his head.

"And he placed TERAH THE SON OF NAHOR the prince of his host, and he dignified him and elevated him above all his princes" (Jasher 7:23-41).

Notice! Although the Bible does not mention these fine details in the Scriptural narrative, nevertheless, Terah, Abram's father, was the commander-in-chief of Nimrod's army! He was a very important man in the post-Flood world, and in the government of Nimrod. This occurred when Nimrod was about forty years of age. The account goes on:

". . . . And Nimrod dwelt in Shinar . . . and his kingdom became very great . . . and Nimrod reigned in the earth over all the sons of Noah, and they were all under his power and counsel (he was the first World Ruler). And all the earth was of one tongue and words of union, but Nimrod did not go in the ways of the Lord. . . . And Terah, the son of Nahor, prince of Nimrod's host, was in those days very great in the sight of the king and his subjects, and the king and princes loved him, and they elevated him very high.

"And Terah took a wife and her name was Ambhelo the daughter of Cornebo; and the wife of Terah conceived and bare him a son in those days. Terah was SEVENTY YEARS OLD when he begat him, and Terah called the name of his son ABRAM, because the king had raised him in those days, and dignified him above all his princes" (Jasher 7:44-51).

The book of Jasher therefore plainly tells us Abram was born to Terah when he was 70 years old -- not 135, as Archbishop Ussher thought. The story continues that at the birth of Abram, the astrologers and wise men of Nimrod's kingdom saw a horrifying sign in the heavens, which they understood to mean that the child born to Terah that night would grow up and possess the earth, and would kill all the kings of the earth, posing a great threat to Nimrod himself. A plot was hatched to kill the child. Terah managed to save Abram by substituting the child of one of his servants instead, and then hid Abram, his mother and nurse, in a cave for ten years (Jasher 8:33-36).

The account goes on to tell us that Haran, Abram's oldest brother, took a wife when he wad 39 years of age, and when he was 42, she bare to him Sarai, in the tenth year of Abram's life (Jasher 9:1-4). Thus Sarai was ten years younger than Abram, whom she would later marry. She was born in 2046 B.C. This means that Haran was born 42 years earlier, in 2088 B.C., and was 32 years older than Abram. This is also corroborated in Jasher 12:16, where we read, "and Haran was in those days that Abram was born thirty and two years old." He was born when Terah his father was 38.

When Abram was ten years old, he came out of the cave. The king Nimrod and all his soothsayers thought he was long dead by this time. However, taking no chances, we read that:

"And when Abram came out from the cave, he went to Noah and his son Shem, and he remained with them to learn the instruction of the Lord and his ways, and no man knew where Abram was, and Abram served Noah and his son Shem for a long time.

"And Abram was in Noah's house thirty nine years, and Abram knew the Lord from three days old, and he went in the ways of the Lord until the day of his death, as Noah and his son Shem had taught him; and all the sons of the earth in those days greatly transgressed against the Lord, and they rebelled against him, and they served other gods, and the forgot the Lord who had created them in the earth . . . . And Terah had twelve gods of large size, made of wood and stone, after the twelve months of the year. . . " (Jasher 5-8).

Thus Abram, from age 10 to 49, was in the house of Noah, learning the truth of God! This would have been from the year 2046 (the year Sarai was born) until the year 2007 B.C. During this time, "king Nimrod reigned securely, and all the earth was under his control, and all the earth was of one tongue and words of union" (Jasher 9:20).

At this time Nimrod and his great men took counsel to build a "strong tower, and its top reaching heaven: (verse 21). While they built it, they "imagined in their hearts to war against him and to ascend into heaven" (v.25). As the Scriptures tell us, and the book of Jasher confirms, the gigantic tower was destroyed in a mighty paroxysm. Says the book of Jasher, "And as to the tower which the sons of men built, the earth opened its mouth and swallowed up one third part thereof, and a fire also descended from heaven and burned another third, and a third part is left to this day, and it is of that part which was aloft, and its circumference is three days' walk" (v.38).

This tremendous event would have occurred just before Abram left the house of Noah in the year 2007 B.C. The tower of Babel catastrophe, therefore, would have occurred somewhere around the year 2008 B.C. It was shortly after this awesome lesson from the heavens, that Abram comes forth from hiding and exile, and returns to the house of his father Terah.

Abram Confronts Nimrod

When Abram was 50 years old, he left Noah's house and returned to his father's house. Terah was still steeped in idolatry, and still captain of the host of Nimrod (Jasher 11:13-15). Abram remonstrated with his father about his strange gods (verses 26-50). Incensed, Terah reported this incident to Nimrod , who sent soldiers to seize Abram. Nimrod, all his princes, and Terah were present, when Abram witnessed before them, urging the king to repent of his follies and wickedness, his idolatries, and to serve the "God of the whole universe, who created thee, and in whose power it is to kill and keep alive" (Jasher 11:54-55). He ended his testimony, saying, "O foolish, simple, and ignorant king, woe unto thee forever" (v.56).

Nimrod was so indignant and full of wrath, that he ordered Abram put into prison, and then asked his counselors what ought to be done with him. They counseled that Abram should be thrown alive into a flaming furnace and be burned to death (Jasher 12:6). For three days and nights a mighty fire was prepared in the king's furnace, and all the inhabitants of the land stood to see Abram being brought out to be burned. Jasher estimates the crowd at about 900,000 (Jasher 12:7-8).

What happened? Jasher relates:

"And the Lord loved Abram and he had compassion over him, and the Lord came down and delivered Abram from the fire and he was not burned. But all the cords with which they bound him were burned, while Abram remained and walked about in the fire. . . .

"And Abram walked in the midst of the fire three days and three nights, and all the servants of the king saw him walking in the fire, and they came and told the king . . . . And when the king heard their words his heart fainted and he would not believe them. . . and the king rose to go and see it, and he saw Abram walking to and fro in the midst of the fire . . ." (Jasher 12:24-28).

At this time Abram was 50 years old. Nimrod was the son of Cush, the son of Ham. Ham begat Cush probably 2346 B.C., two years this side of the Flood. If Cush were 251 years of age, when he begat Nimrod, then Nimrod would have been born in 2095 B.C. Remember, he was expressly born in Cush's old age, "the son of his old age" (Jasher 7:23). Thus he would have been about 30 years younger than Terah, the chief over his host. He would have been approximately 40 years older than Abram.

Keep this date in mind, for later we will see how well it correlates with another date signpost we will discover in the book of Jasher! There are many "date links" given in the book of Jasher which are unavailable anywhere else.

Abram's Place of Safety

After this, king Nimrod had a disturbing dream, which his counselors interpreted to mean that "the day will come when Abram and his seed and the children of his household will war with my king, and they will smite all the king's horses and all his troops . . . this means nothing else but the seed of Abram which will slay the king in latter days" (Jasher 12:53-55). Abram got secret word of this and the conspiracy to have him killed, and "Abram hastened and ran for safety to the house of Noah and his son Shem, and he concealed himself there and found a place of safety" (v.61).

Terah came to visit his son, after he had been with Noah for a month, at which time Abram encouraged his father to come with him to Canaan, so that they would both be delivered from the hand of Nimrod (v.65). Terah hearkened to his son's wisdom, and they came as far as the land of Haran, and remained there (Jasher 13:1). "And Abram remained in the land of Haran three years, and at the expiration of three years the Lord appeared to Abram and said to him, I am the Lord who brought thee forth from Ur Casdim, and delivered thee from the hands of all thine enemies. And now therefore if thou wilt hearken to my voice and keep my commandments, my statutes and my laws, then will I cause thy enemies to fall before thee, and I will multiply thy seed like the stars of heaven . . ." (Jasher 13:3-4). At this time God told Abram, "Arise now, take thy wife and all belonging to thee and go to the land of Canaan and remain there . . ." (v.5).

Abram's First Trip to Canaan

Abram went to Canaan, and dwelt there 3 years. Jasher records, "At that time, at the end of three years' of Abram's dwelling in the land of Canaan, in that year Noah died, which was the fifty-eighth year of the life of Abram; and all the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years and he died" (Jasher 13:9).

Noah was 600 years when the Flood came. He lived beyond the Flood 350 more years, and died in the year 1998 B.C. Abram was born in 2056 B.C. Thus Noah indeed died in Abram's 58th year, just as the book of Jasher tells us!

The book of Jasher then tells us, "And in the tenth year of Abram's dwelling in the land of Canaan (7 more years, or in the year 1991 B.C., when Abram was 65) there was war between Nimrod king of Shinar and Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Nimrod came to fight with Chedorlaomer and to subdue him. For Chedorlaomer was at that time one of the princes of the hosts of Nimrod. . . . And Nimrod assembled all his princes and subjects, about seven hundred thousand men, and went against Chedorlaomer, and Chedorlaomer went out to meet him with five thousand men . . . And all those kings fought there, and Nimrod and his people were smitten . . . and there fell from Nimrod's men about six hundred thousand . . . And Nimrod fled and returned in shame and disgrace to his own land, and he was under subjection to Chedorlaomer for a long time" (Jasher 13:12-16).

Jasher continues the story of Abram: "And it was in the fifteenth year of Abram's dwelling in the land of Canaan, which is the seventieth year of the life of Abram (the year 1986 B.C.), and the Lord appeared to Abram in that year and he said to him, I am the Lord who brought thee out from Ur Chasdim to give thee this land for an inheritance. Now therefore walk before me and be perfect and keep my commandments . . . And thou shalt come to thy fathers in peace and in good age, and the fourth generation shall return here in this land and INHERIT IT FOREVER" (Jasher 13:17-19).

Now notice carefully! God told Abram that He would give him the land from the river of Egypt, the Nile, to the river Euphrates -- and he then told Abram that he would die, peaceably, and in a good old age -- but notice now! Abram would RETURN in the fourth generation, and inherit the land FOREVER! This is a prophecy for the FUTURE! In this instance, the fourth "generation" means 4,000 years, for a full "generation" is a thousand years in fulfillment -- one "day" (II Pet.3:8-10). Abram was born and lived circa 2,000 B.C. Four "generations" or four thousand years from that time brings us to circa 2000 A.D.! This is one more astonishing evidence that we are surely living in the generation of the END TIME!

note by L.C.Geerts : I disagree with Dr. Johnson that four generations means 4,000 years. This statement is inspired on Christian dogmas and beside the truth because four generations counts at the most a time span of about 400 years. Furthermore Jasher did not mention a period of 4000 years but a period of four generations. Did God intend to say 430 years ?

Abram's SECOND Journey to Canaan!

Now let's continue the story of Abram. "At that time Abram returned and went to Haran, to see his father and mother, and his father's household, and Abram and his wife and all belonging to him returned to Haran, and Abram dwelt in Haran five years. And many of the people of Haran, about seventy two men, followed Abram and Abram taught them the instruction of the Lord and his ways, and he taught them to know the Lord. In those days the Lord appeared to Abram in Haran, and he said to him, Behold, I spoke unto thee these twenty years back saying, Go forth from thy land, from thy birth-place and from thy father's house, to the land which I have shown thee to give it to thee and to thy children . . . Now therefore arise, go forth from this place, thou, thy wife, and all belonging to thee . . . and rise to return to the land of Canaan.

"And Abram arose and took his wife Sarai and all belonging to him . . . and they came out to go to the land of Canaan. And Abram went and returned to the land of Canaan, according to the word of the Lord. And Lot the son of his brother Haran went with him, and Abram was SEVENTY FIVE YEARS OLD when he went forth from Haran to return to the land of Canaan" (Jasher 13:20-26).

This was the SECOND time Abram went to the land of Canaan! The first time was when he was 55 years of age. This was 20 years later, when he was 75 years of age. The Bible does not tell us about these two different times Abram went to the land of Canaan. The book of Genesis telescopes and shortens much of the real story, giving us the highlights, as it were. But the book of Jasher fills in many very interesting and astounding details, giving us the true chronological order of the various events, births, and deaths, of the patriarchs, and recounts for us their activities and lives.

This second time Abraham went to Canaan, is also recorded in the book of Genesis, chapter 12. Here we are told that Abram departed, at age seventy five, taking Sarai, Lot, and all his substance with him (Gen.12:3). This was the year 1981 B.C.

Let us now skip down to the next events noted in the book of Jasher. Abraham was dwelling in the plain of Mamre many years, and his nephew Lot had decided to move down to the Sodom valley (Jasher 15). At that time, a war broke out.

War in the Middle East!

"At that time Chedorlaomer king of Elam sent to all the neighboring kings, to Nimrod, king of Shinar, who was then under his power, and to Tidal, king of Goyim, and to Arioch, king of Elasar, with whom he had a covenant, saying, Come up to me and assist me, that we may smite all the towns of Sodom . . . for they have rebelled against me these thirteen years. And these four kings went up with all their camps, about eight hundred thousand men . . . And these nine kings made war in the valley of Siddom; and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah were smitten before the kings of Elam" (Jasher 16:1-4).

At this time, Abraham delivered his nephew Lot who had been taken captive by the kings who attacked Sodom. He smote them at night, when their troops were drunken and feasting, in a sudden surprise attack with only 318 men (Jasher 16:7). It is another intriguing story, whose details are filled out more completely in the book of Jasher.

The book of Jasher contains an absorbing account of the sins of the people of Sodom, and why God became furious with them, and the account of their divine judgment.

The Birth of Isaac and Death of Terah

Picking up the story, the book of Jasher also records the miraculous birth of Isaac when Abraham was 100 years of age. Since Abraham was born in 2056 B.C., the birth of Isaac would have occurred in the year 1956 B.C. Abraham made a great feast on the day that Isaac was weaned, and "Shem and Eber and all the great people of the land, and Abimelech king of the Philistines . . . came to eat and drink and rejoice at the feast which Abraham made" (Jasher 21:5). "Also Terah . . . came from Haran, they and all belonging to them, for they greatly rejoiced on hearing that a son had been born to Sarah" (v.6).

The next chronological link in the story, comes in chapter 22 of Jasher.

"And Terah died in that year, that is, in the thirty-fifth year of the birth of Isaac son of Abraham. And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years, and he was buried in Haran" (Jasher 22:33-34).

Terah was born in 2126 B.C. The Scriptures also tell us he was 205 years old when he died (Genesis 11:32). This means he died in the year 1921 B.C. On the other hand, Isaac was born in the 100th year of Abraham. Abraham was born in 2056. This puts the birth of Isaac in the year 1956 B.C. If we subtract 35 years from 1956, we come up with 1921 -- the very same year.

Thus the Bible, and the book of Jasher, are in complete agreement on Biblical chronology from Flood, down through the birth of Terah, Abraham's father, to Abraham, and down to the birth of Abraham's promised son, Isaac!

The Binding of Isaac and Death of Sarah

The intriguing account of the "binding of Isaac" is then recounted in the book of Jasher, the story of the near sacrifice of this wonderful and obedient son, which is also recounted in the book of Genesis (chapter 22). Isaac at this time was 37 years old (Jasher 22:41). Therefore, this event would have occurred in 1919 B.C.

This was a very traumatic experience, especially for Sarah, who was devoted to her son, and who at one point was told that he had been "sacrificed" by Abraham. Not knowing the truth, that Isaac had been spared, her heart was heavy with grief, but she still had faith in God. When she heard that Isaac was still alive after all, she could hardly take in the good news, and joyous at this wonderful news, her heart was overcome, and she died soon thereafter, but in joy, not in grief. This is not the place to go into this incredible story, nor the time, but it is recommended reading for all students who are serious about the Bible and its message. The year would have been 1919 B.C.

Sarah died at the age of 127 years (Jasher 24:1). She was born ten years after Abraham, or in 2046 B.C. This would put her death in the year 1919 B.C., the same year as the "binding of Isaac," actually following shortly after it.

Sarah was buried with great pomp and ceremony, as befits a queen. "And Abraham buried Sarah with pomp as observed at the interment of kings, and she was buried in very fine and beautiful garments. And at her bier was Shem, his sons Eber and Abimelech, together with Anar, Ashcol and Mamre, and all the grandees of the land followed her bier" (Jasher 24:13-14).

Births of Jacob and Esau

The next important event chronicled in the book of Jasher is Isaac, the son of Abraham, taking a wife. "And Isaac took Rebecca and she became his wife, and he brought her into his tent. And Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebecca, the daughter of his uncle Bethuel, for a wife" (Jasher 24:44-45). Isaac married Rebecca, when he was forty years of age, so this would have been in the year 1916 B.C.

Rebecca bore no children for many years. But the book of Jasher records, "And in the fifty-ninth year of the life of Isaac the son of Abraham, Rebecca his wife was still barren in those days" (Jasher 26:1). Isaac's 59th year would have been 1897 B.C.

Rebecca asked her husband Isaac to pray for her to have children, even as Abraham had prayed for Sarah, who also had been barren. Isaac does so, and the Lord heard his earnest prayer, and Rebecca conceives (Jasher 26:2-8). She had twins -- Esau and Jacob -- who struggled for dominance even while in her womb. This would have been circa 1896 B.C., when God answered Isaac's prayer, and the prayers of Shem, Eber, and Abraham, and Esau and Jacob were born! Isaac was 60 years old when Jacob and Esau were born.

The book of Jasher goes on to tell us, "and the boys grew up to their fifteen year, and they came amongst the society of men. Esau was a designing and deceitful man, an excellent hunter in the field, and Jacob was a man perfect and wise, dwelling in tents, feeding flocks and learning the instructions of the Lord and the commandments of his father and mother" (Jasher 26:17).

The chronology of Jasher therefore informs us that Rebecca conceived when Isaac was 59, 19 years after she married Isaac. She delivered two children the following year. Therefore, Esau and Jacob were born in 1896 B.C. Fifteen years later, when they were strapping youths and Esau had become an excellent hunter, would have been the year 1881 B.C.

The Death of Righteous Abraham

"And it was at that time that Abraham died, in the fifteenth year of the life of Jacob and Esau, the sons of Isaac, and all the days of Abraham were one hundred and seventy five years, and he died and was gathered to his people in good old age, old and satisfied with days, and Isaac and Ishmael his sons buried him" (Jasher 26:29). All the kings and princes of Canaan came to Abraham's funeral, to bury him, and all the people of Haran, and all the princes and grandees among the sons of Abraham by the concubines. Born in 1896 B.C., Jacob and Esau would have been 15 years of age in 1881 B.C. Abraham would have been 175 years of age.

Says Jasher of this remarkable man of faith and obedience to God: "And there arose not a man who feared God like unto Abraham, for he had feared his God from his youth, and had served the Lord, and had gone in all his ways during his life, from his childhood to the day of his death. And the Lord was with him and delivered him from the counsel of Nimrod and his people, and when he made war with the four kings of Elam he conquered them. And he brought all the children of the earth to the service of God, and he taught them the ways of the Lord, and caused them to know the Lord. And he formed a grove and he planted a vineyard therein, and he had always prepared in his tent meat and drink to those who passed through the land, that they might satisfy themselves in his house. And the Lord God delivered the whole earth on account of Abraham" (Jasher 26:34-38).

Esau the Hunter Ambushes Nimrod!

After the death of Abraham, when Esau was 16 years of age, he went into the wilds to hunt game, as was his custom. Jasher tells us:

"And Esau at that time, after the death of Abraham, frequently went into the field to hunt. And Nimrod king of Babel, the same was Amraphel, also frequently went with his mighty men to hunt in the field, and to walk about in the cool of the day. And Nimrod was observing Esau all the days, for a jealousy was formed in the heart of Nimrod against Esau all the days.

"And on a certain day Esau went into the field to hunt, and he found Nimrod walking in the wilderness with his two men. And all his mighty men and his people were with him in the wilderness, but they removed at a distance from him, and they went from him in different directions to hunt, and Esau concealed himself for Nimrod, and he lurked for him in the wilderness. . . .

"And Nimrod and two of his men that were with him came to the place where they were when Esau started suddenly from his lurking place, and drew his sword, and hastened, and ran to Nimrod and cut off his head.

"And Esau fought a desperate fight with the two men that were with Nimrod, and when they called out to him, Esau turned to them and smote them to death with his sword. . . . And when Esau saw the mighty men of Nimrod coming at a distance, he fled, and thereby escaped; and Esau took the valuable garments of Nimrod, which Nimrod's father had bequeathed to Nimrod, and with which Nimrod prevailed over the whole land, and he ran and concealed them in his house.

"And Esau took those garments and ran into the city on account of Nimrod's men, and he came into his father's house weary and exhausted from fight, and he was ready to die through grief when he approached his brother Jacob and sat before him. And he said to his brother Jacob, Behold I shall die this day, and wherefore then do I want the birthright? And Jacob acted wisely with Esau in this matter, and Esau sold his birthright to Jacob, for it was so brought about by the Lord. . . . .

"And when Nimrod the son of Cush died, his men lifted him up and brought him in consternation, and buried him in his city, and all the days that Nimrod lives were two hundred and fifteen years and he died" (Jasher 27:1-15).

Nimrod was slain by Esau when Esau was 16 years of age. At that time, we are here told, Nimrod himself was 215 years of age. Since Esau was 16 in the year 1880 B.C., when Nimrod was killed, and Nimrod was 215 in that same year, then we can calculate the actual birth year of Nimrod. Nimrod was born in the year 2095 B.C. Notice how beautifully all these figures correlate together!

Nimrod, born to Cush in his old age, would have been an old man at this time, when Esau, the young "sport," saw his chance and assassinated the old king! At this time Esau stole the garments God had made for Adam and Eve, which Nimrod had been given by his father Cush who himself had stolen them from Noah. Evidently, Esau saw these as his means and way to power and kingship in the earth. Yet not long later, famished and feeling on the verge of death, Esau sold his birthright to Jacob for a bowl of bean soup!

The book of Jasher continues:

"And the days that Nimrod reigned upon the people of the land were one hundred and eighty-five years; and Nimrod died by the sword of Esau in shame and contempt, and the seed of Abraham caused his death as he had seen in his dream.

"And at the death of Nimrod his kingdom became divided into many divisions, and all those parts that Nimrod reigned over were restored to the respective kings of the land, who recovered them after the death of Nimrod, and all the people of the house of Nimrod were for a long time enslaved to all the other kings of the land" (Jasher 27:16-17).

After his untimely death, Nimrod's kingdom did not endure. It became all divided up into the hands of the original kings of the various lands which he had conquered.

After Nimrod -- Jacob and Esau

After this time, a number of deaths of prominent, righteous men are recorded in the book of Jasher. Two years later, "Shelach, the son of Arphaxad, died in that year, which is the eighteenth year of the lives of Jacob and Esau; and all the days that Shelach lived were four hundred and eighty three years and he died.

"At that time Isaac sent his younger son Jacob to the house of Shem and Eber, and he learned the instructions of the Lord, and Jacob remained in the house of Shem and Eber thirty two years, and Esau his brother did not go, for he was not willing to go, and he remained in his father's house in the land of Canaan" (Jasher 28:17-18).

The year Shelach died, then, was 1880 B.C. In that same year Jacob was sent to the house of Shem and Eber, to learn the ways of God, even as Abraham had been, and he remained there for 32 years -- from 1880 until 1848 B.C., when he returned to Isaac and Rebecca. Esau in the meantime, roamed widely in his hunting trips, and when he was 40 years of age he married a Canaanite woman living in the land of Seir (Jasher 28:22-23).

At this point, the book of Jasher gives us another vital benchmark. We read:

"And it came to pass in those days, in the hundred and tenth year of the life of Isaac, that is, in the fiftieth year of the life of Jacob, in that year died SHEM the son of NOAH; Shem was 600 years old at his death. And when Shem died Jacob returned to his father in Hebron" (Jasher 29:24-25).

Shem died then in the year 1846 B.C. He was born 98 years before the Flood (he was 100 years old two years after the Flood -- see Gen.11:10), and died 500 years after the birth of Arphaxad (Gen.11:11). The Flood occurred in 2348 B.C. Since Shem was 600 when he died, and since he was born 2446 B.C, his death would have been in 1846 B.C.

Since the book of Jasher shows that Jacob was 50 years old and Isaac was 110 at this point in time, when Shem died, these facts once again confirming that Jacob's birth was in 1896, (fifty years before), and the birth of Isaac was in 1956 B.C. (110 years before).

Jacob Versus Esau -- the Rivalry

After this, we come to the story of Isaac growing old and desiring venison from his son Esau, after which he promises to "bless him." Rebecca and Jacob pull a trick on Isaac, and Jacob disguises himself as Esau, and "steals" his birthright (which really wasn't Esau's any more anyway, since he had already sold it to Jacob.

Esau is so enraged at this act of trickery, that he vows to kill Jacob. We read, "And Jacob was very much afraid of his brother Esau, and he rose up and fled to the house of Eber the son of Shem, and he concealed himself there on account of his brother, and Jacob was sixty three years old when he went forth from the land of Canaan from Hebron, and Jacob was concealed in Eber's house fourteen years on account of his brother Esau, and he there continued to learn the ways of the Lord and his commandments" (Jasher 29:11).

Jacob therefore must have fled to Eber's abode 13 years after Shem's death in 1846. This would put his flight in 1833 B.C. Ishmael, the brother of Isaac, died the following year, "in the sixty fourth year of the life of Jacob" (Jasher 29:18). Jacob continued hiding at Eber's place for 14 years, or until 1819 B.C. Jacob became homesick, and returned to Hebron, only to learn that Esau had neither forgotten nor forgiven him for stealing his "blessing." Alarmed, Isaac and Rebecca counsel Jacob to flee to Haran, to her family there, for refuge, and to find a mate for himself. "Jacob was seventy seven years old when he went out from the land of Canaan from Beersheba" (Jasher 29:30). This would have been the year 1819, showing he did not dilly dally long in Canaan, when his life was at great risk!

Two years later, we read, "And in the second year of Jacob's dwelling in Haran, that is in the seventy ninth year of the life of Jacob, in that year died Eber the son of Shem, he was four hundred and sixty four years old at his death" (Jasher 30:16). This would have been 1817 B.C.

After Jacob dwelt 20 years with Laban, serving him, marrying his two daughters Leah and Rachel, Jacob noted that conditions were getting difficult for him and his growing family. Laban had changed his wages deceitfully ten times, and sought to impoverish Jacob, but God turned his conniving trickery into a blessing for Jacob, and supernaturally blessed his sheep. At the end of 20 years, God appeared to Jacob, and told him to go back to Canaan (Jasher 31:37, 32:3).

Of course, this meant he would encounter Esau once again. Esau indeed came out to seek vengeance on Jacob, but the book of Jasher informs us:

"And the Lord heard the prayer of Jacob on that day, and the Lord then delivered Jacob from the hands of his brother Esau. And the Lord sent three angels of the angels of heaven, and they went before Esau and came to him. And these angels appeared to Esau and his people as two thousand men, riding upon horses furnished with all sorts of war instruments, and they appeared in the sight of Esau and all his men to be divided into four camps, with four chiefs to them. And one camp went on and they found Esau coming with four hundred men toward his brother Jacob, and this camp ran toward Esau and his people and terrified them, and Esau fell off the horse in alarm, and all his men separated from him in that place, for they were greatly afraid. And the whole of the camp shouted after them when they fled from Esau, and all the warlike men answered, saying, Surely we are the servants of Jacob, who is the servant of God, and who then can stand against us? (Jasher 32:27-32).

Four times such camps of angels ran at Esau and his men, terrifying them and causing them great anguish and astonishment. No doubt many of them wet their breeches that day. After these awesome, frightening events, Esau's heart was temporarily changed, and instead of seeking to destroy his brother, he came to him in peace. He concealed his hatred in his heart, because of his fear (32:39-40). The return of Jacob to Canaan would have been 20 years after he left, or the year 1799-1800 B.C.

"And it was in those days, in that year, being the hundred and sixth year of the life of Jacob, in the tenth year of Jacob's coming from Padan-aram, that Leah the wife of Jacob died; she was fifty one years old when she died in Hebron" (Jasher 41:2). This would have been the year 1790 B.C. Leah therefore was born 1841 B.C.

The Story of Joseph

In the following year, Joseph, the son of Jacob, being a younger son, was "seventeen years old" when he dreamed a dream that seemed to exalt him over his brothers, causing them great anger and animosity (Jasher 41:9). This may have been in 1789 B.C., following the death of Leah. Soon they had enough of his "sass," and counseled to get rid of him -- permanently. Joseph was sold as a slave and would up a slave of Potiphar in Egypt. The next year, when Joseph was 18 years of age, 1788 B.C., that he came to the attention of Potiphar's wife, who fell in deep lust with the young Hebrew lad (Jasher 44:14-16). She later accused Joseph of attempting to rape her, and Potiphar, believing her report, had Joseph cast into the king's prison; "and Joseph was in the house of confinement twelve years" (Jasher 44:76; see also 46:20). This period of imprisonment in the dungeon would have been from 1788 to 1776 B.C. Joseph was thrown into the prison at the age of 18, and remained there 12 years, or until age 30.

During this period, Isaac died at the age of 180 years. "And Jacob and Esau fell upon the face of their father Isaac, and they wept, and Isaac was one hundred and eighty years old when he died in the land of Canaan, in Hebron, and his sons carried him to the cave of Machpelah, which Abraham had bought. . . . And all the kings of the land of Canaan went with Jacob and Esau to bury Isaac . . ." (Jasher 47:10-11). The year would have been 1776 B.C., the final year of Joseph in the dungeon.

The story of how Joseph was delivered from prison, and interpreted the Pharaoh's dreams, and became second-in-command throughout all the land of Egypt, is well known. The book of Jasher again gives a much more detailed picture of the story. The author declares, "And Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh, and Joseph went out before the king, and he became the king's second in Egypt" (Jasher 49:38). Joseph built himself a beautiful mansion, "like unto the houses of kings" (v.39), "three years was Joseph erecting his house" (v.40). Joseph even had an army, numbering 40,000 troops.

"At the revolution of the year, in the second year of Joseph's reigning over Egypt, the Lord gave great plenty throughout the land for seven years as Joseph had spoken, for the Lord blessed all the produce of the land in those days for seven years, and they ate and were greatly satisfied" (Jasher 50:7). Joseph stored the excess grain in silos and treasuries. For seven years they stored up all the extra, surplus grain, knowing that the seven years of famine were coming. These seven bountiful years would have been 1775-1769. Therefore, the crushing years of famine and drought would have been 1768-1762.

The story of the reconciliation of Joseph with his brothers who had sold him into slavery, is well known. The book of Jasher adds much more detail to this incredible Biblical epic.

Ultimately, at the closing stages of the famine, Jacob and his entire family go to Egypt, to live with Joseph, where they are given the choice land of Goshen in the Nile Delta for their inheritance. They live there many years and are incredibly blessed. Jacob blesses the two children of Joseph, born in Egypt, Ephraim and Manasseh, and adopts them as his own. The book of Jasher tells us: "And Joseph was very aged, advanced in years, and his two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, remained constantly in the house of Jacob, together with the children of the sons of Jacob their brethren, to learn the ways of the Lord and his law" (Jasher 55:35).

"And Jacob lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years, and the days of Jacob, and the years of his life, were a hundred and forty seven years" (Jasher 56:1). Thus Jacob was 147 years old when he died. Since he was born in 1896, his death occurred in the year 1749 B.C. Since he was in Egypt 17 years, then Jacob immigrated to Egypt in the year 1766 B.C.

Chronology and the Exodus Saga

In the book of Exodus, we read an amazing statement: "Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years. And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt" (Exodus 12:40-41).

Now, Archbishop Ussher in his chronology counts this period of time beginning with the sojourn of Abraham in Canaan, which he dates to 1921 B.C., the year that Terah, the father of Abraham died, and the year he believed that Abraham first went to Canaan (Gen.12:1-3), that is, Abraham's 75th year (Gen.12:4).

However, we have seen in the book of Jasher that indeed Terah died in 1921 B.C. But Abraham's departure for Canaan when he was 75 years of age took place in the year 1981 B.C., or sixty years earlier than Ussher suggests.

What events, then, can we tie the figure 430 years to, during which the "children of Israel sojourned"?

Obviously, the death of Terah is one linch pin. It is 430 years indeed from the death of Terah, Abraham's father, to the Exodus from Egypt in 1491 B.C.

Interestingly, the death of Terah coincides also with the 35th year of Isaac, the son of Abraham. This was only two years before the supreme test when Abraham took Isaac to Mount Moriah to be a "human sacrifice." Although God did not require Abraham to go through with this deed.

Why would the death of Terah be significant as the starting point of the 430 years of suffering and affliction of the children of Israel?

Could it be partly because Terah, with his power and authority, and widespread respect, was a protective influence over Abraham and his children, so long as Terah lived? No doubt he did his best to help his son so long as he was alive, supplying information, news, and vital intelligence from his own networks as the one-time commander of the hosts of Babylon. Then, just two years after this change in the life of Abraham and his descendants, God called upon Abraham for the greatest sacrifice a parent can make -- to sacrifice his own son (Genesis 22).

In very real and meaningful sense, the "binding of Isaac" pictures the GREATEST travail and suffering human beings can be required to suffer. The loss of one's own son, or daughter, or children, is the greatest trauma a parent can suffer. The binding of Isaac very likely occurred on Passover eve, at the very time the Passover lambs were sacrificed at the Temple!

If we count the beginning of the sojourn of Israel from the death of Terah, as Ussher does, then his date for the Exodus is entirely correct. Abraham himself did not first enter Canaan on that date, but 60 years earlier. However, the Scripture in Exodus speaks of "the sojourning of the CHILDREN of Israel," and not Abraham himself. Although Abraham, Isaac and Jacob are all considered "Israel," in the greater sense, since they are the three great Patriarchs, the sojourning -- when Abraham, Isaac, and their families were completely cut off from outside support -- would have begun at the death of Abraham's father, Terah. His death would have marked the time when they were entirely "on their own," as it were.

The book of Jasher sheds marvelous light on the chronology of the years between the Flood and the children of Israel entering Egypt. It does not alter the frame of Ussher's chronology. Creation would still be in 4004 B.C. The Flood would still be in 2348 B.C. The only changes would be the birth dates of Abraham and his children, by putting them all 60 years earlier. This means the sojourn in Egypt itself also began 60 years earlier than Ussher's date.

This happy coincidence provides us an additional 60 years of the children of Israel in Egypt to reproduce like rabbits so their progeny, by the time of the Exodus, includes 600,000 males, besides women and children. Ussher's chronology puts the sojourn of Jacob and his family in Egypt as beginning in 1706. He puts the Exodus in 1491. The difference is only 215 years total, for Jacob's family to grow from 70 people to something like 2-3 million!

However, the reconstruction of the chronology from the Flood to the Sojourn in Egypt gives us another 60 years -- or a total of 275 years in Egypt, for Israel to reproduce and multiply -- another two generations to accomplish the exponential growth rate required!

Also, by backing up the birth of Abraham by 60 years, suddenly many pieces of the historical puzzle begin to click, and fit together. Now we see Abraham was actually taught by Noah himself the ways of the Lord. Isaac also was taught by Noah and Shem. Jacob also spent years in the house of Shem and Eber. The new chronology also helps us to pinpoint in history the Tower of Babel cataclysm, the birth of Nimrod, and Nimrod's rise to power, his relationship to Terah, Abraham's father, and his dealings with Abraham himself, and his children, and his murder at the hands of Esau, Isaac's son. It's all quite a fascinating story. Read it -- for yourself!

A video about the Book of Jasher:

The Book of Jasher Content

The Book of Jasher

Referred to in Joshua and Second Samuel

Faithfully Translated



This is one of the apochrypal Books of Jasher.

There are several (as many as five) separate works by this title, all composed much later than Biblical times.

This particular one is a translation of a Hebrew book printed in 1613. Sepir Ha Yasher, the Hebrew title of this book, means the 'Book of the Upright', or 'the Upright or Correct Record'.

This title was misread as 'Jasher', and at some point Jasher was treated as a proper name; however the pronoun 'the' (hebrew 'ha') never preceeds proper names.

There is also another spurious Book of Jasher, published 1750, in which Jasher is treated as the name of the author.

This text covers much of the same ground as the traditional Mosaic books of the Bible, from the creation of the world to the death of Moses, albeit with several minor variations.

The root of the first book of Jasher must be written BEFORE the time of Joshua and Samuel in the Bible because both books refers to the book of Jasher.

"Is not this written in the Book of Jasher?"--Joshua, 10,13.

"Behold it is written in the Book of Jasher."--II. Samuel, 1,18

Chapter 1 --The Creation of Adam and Eve. The Fall. Birth of Cain and Abel. Abel a Keeper of Sheep. Cain a Tiller of the Soil. The Quarrel Between the Brothers and the Result. Cain, the First Murderer, Cursed of God

Chapter 2 --Seth is Born. People begin to Multiply and Become Idolatrous. Third Part of the Earth Destroyed. Earth cursed and becomes corrupt through the Wickedness of Men. Cainan, a Wise and Righteous King, Foretells the Flood. Enoch is Born

Chapter 3 --Enoch Reigns over the Earth. Enoch Establishes Righteousness upon the Earth, and after Reigning Two Hundred and Forty Years is Translated

Chapter 4 --The People of the Earth Again Become Corrupt. Noah is Born

Chapter 5 --Noah and Methuselah Preach Repentance for One Hundred and Twenty Years. Noah Builds the Ark. Death of Methuselah.

Chapter 6 -Animals, Beasts, and Fowls Preserved in the Ark. Noah and his Sons, and their Wives are Shut in. When the Floods come the People want to get in. Noah One Year in the Ark.

Chapter 7 --The Generations of Noah. The Garments of Skin made for Adam Stolen by Ham and they Descend to Nimrod the Mighty Hunter, who Becomes the King of the Whole Earth. The Birth of Abram.

Chapter 8 --The Wise Men of Nimrod, by their Divination, Foretell the Evil that Abram will do to Nimrod's Kingdom, and they seek to kill the Child. Abram, with his Mother and Nurse are Hid in a cave for Ten Years.

Chapter 9 --When Ten Years Old, Abram goes to Noah and Shem, Remains with them for Thirty-nine Years, and is Taught in all the Ways of the Lord. The Wickedness of Nimrod and his People. They Propose to Build a Tower to Heaven and Dethrone God. The confusion of Tongues.

Chapter 10 --The Descendants of Noah, Scattered over the whole earth, build themselves Cities.

Chapter 11 --Nimrod's Wicked Reign. The Idolatry of Terah, Abram's Father. When Fifty Years old, Abram returns to his Father's House and Discovers his Idols. Makes a pretext to destroy them. After making Savory Meat for the gods, Abram takes a Hatchet and destroys them, leaving the Hatchet in the hands of the larger one, where it is discovered by his Father, who is told by Abram that the Great God had risen up in anger and Destroyed his Fellows. Terah in his wrath betrays Abram to the King, who brings him up before the Throne for Judgment. Abram Warns his Father and the King, before all the Princes, of the Evils of Idolatry.

Chapter 12 --Abram placed in Prison, and is condemned after ten days to be cast into a Fiery Furnace. His Brother Haran being Falsely Accused is condemned to the same Fate. As Haran's heart was not right before the Lord, he perished, but Abram is Delivered and is brought forth Alive. Is Presented with Many Gifts. The King Dreams of Abram, and again Seeks his Life. Abram flees to the House of Noah.

Chapter 13 --On Abram's account Terah and all his House, with Abram, Leave Ur Casdim to go to the Land of Canaan. They tarry in Haran, where the Lord Appears to Abram, and upon condition of Faithfulness, Promises many Blessings. Abram, commanded of the Lord, takes his Wife and all belonging to him and goes to the Land of Canaan, where the Lord again appears to him and Promises the Land of Canaan as an Everlasting Inheritance. After Fifteen Years, Abram returns to Haran to Visit his Father. Teaches many to Walk in the Ways of the Lord. Again commanded to go to Canaan, where he Builds an Altar. The Lord renews his Covenant with him.

Chapter 14 --Rikayon's cunning Device to make Money of the Egyptians.

Chapter 15 --On Account of Famine in Canaan, Abram goes to Egypt. Tells the People that Sarah is his Sister, on account of her Beauty. Pharaoh Desires to take her, but is Prevented by an Angel of the Lord. The Truth is made known, and Sarah is Restored to Abram, with many Presents. Abram returns to his Home. Trouble between Lot and Abram on account of Lot's cattle. Lot Removes to Sodom.

Chapter 16 --Four Kings with Eight Hundred Thousand Men War against Sodom and the Cities of the Plain, and destroy and plunder their people. Abram, Hearing that Lot is taken captive, gathers together about Three Hundred Men and Pursues the Kings, retakes the captives, and smites the whole Army of the confederate Rings. On his Return, Abram meets Adonizedek, King of Jerusalem, the same was Shem. Abram gives Tithing of all he had taken to Adonizedek, and is Blessed of Him. Abram Restores to every Man his property which he had retaken in the War, and returns to Hebron. The Lord again appears to Abram and promises to bless him with a Numberless Posterity. Sarah being childless gives Hagar to Abram for a Wife, and becoming jealous of her, afflicts her. An Angel comforts Hagar. Ishmael is Born.

Chapter 17 --The Lord Appears to Abram and Establishes the Covenant of Circumcision, and calls his name Abraham, and Sarai, He calls Sarah.

Chapter 18 --Abraham Entertains Three Angels, who eat with him. Sarah is promised a Son. The People of Sodom and Gomorrah, and of all the Cities of the Plain become very Wicked.

Chapter 19 --The Abominations of the people of Sodom and Gomorrah. Two Angels sent to Save Lot. The Cities of the Plain and all their Inhabitants Destroyed by Fire.

Chapter 20 --Abraham goes to the land of the Philistines, and again tells the People that Sarah is his Sister. Abimelech the King desires her for a Wife. An Angel warns him, and commands him to return her to her Husband. The whole land afflicted on account of the matter. Sarah Restored to Abraham, who entreats the Lord to heal the People of Abimelech.

Chapter 21 --Isaac is Born, causing much Rejoicing among the Friends of Abraham. Ishmael Attempts to kill Isaac, and on that account is sent away with his Mother. Ishmael is blessed with Riches and Posterity.

Chapter 22 --Ishmael returns to his Father, with his Wives and Children. Abraham Returns to Canaan and makes his Home in Beersheba, where he Hospitably Entertains all strangers and teaches them the way of the Lord. Isaac and Ishmael's conversation. The Offering of Isaac Foretold. Satan's opinion of the Father of the Faithful.

Chapter 23 --Abraham commanded to Offer up Isaac, in the Land Moriah. Abraham's Obedience. Sarah's Affliction. What Happened on the Way. Satan attempts to hinder them. Isaac an Acceptable Offering. Father and Son alone. The willingness of Isaac. He Assists his Father in Building the Altar. While they both weep bitterly, they yet Rejoice to be counted worthy before the Lord. Isaac bound and placed upon the Altar. The Angels of God intercede for Isaac, who is released at the command of the Lord, and a Ram is offered in his place. Satan, by his deception and Evils, causes the Death of Sarah.

Chapter 24 --Abraham Purchases a Burial Place. Isaac sent to the House of Shem and Eber to Learn the Way of the Lord. Eliezer is sent to get a Wife for Isaac. Goes to the House of Bethuel and brings Rebecca.

Chapter 25 --Abraham takes Keturah for a Wife, by whom he has Six Sons. The Generations of the Sons of Keturah, and of Ishmael.

Chapter 26 --Isaac and Rebecca pray for children. Their Prayers answered, and Esau and Jacob are Born. Abraham, after recounting all the Wonderful Works of the Lord, enjoins his Son to Walk in His way and keep His Commandments. In the Fifteenth Year of Jacob and Esau's lives, Abraham Dies and is Buried by all the Kings of the land. All the People and even the children mourn for Abraham for a Full.

Chapter 27 --Esau slays Nimrod and Two of his Mighty Men. Returns Home weary from the Fight, and sells his Birthright for Value.

Chapter 28 --On account of Famine, Isaac goes to Gerar, the Land of the Philistines. After the Famine he Returns at the Command of the Lord to Hebron. Jacob is sent to the House of Shem where he Remains Thirty-two Years to learn the Way of the Lord, but Esau would not go. Esau marries a Canaanitish Woman.

Chapter 29 --Jacob by deceit obtains his Brother's Blessing. Jacob fearing his Brother's anger, flees to the House of Eber, where he remains for Fourteen Years. Esau again marries a Woman of the Land. Jacob returns to his Father, but being still threatened by Esau, is advised by his Mother to go to her Brother Laban, in Haran. Jacob goes to Haran, being Commanded by his Father not to Marry any of the Daughters of Canaan. Jacob is Waylaid on the Road, by the Son of Esau, and is Robbed of all he Possessed.

Chapter 30 --When he Arrives at Mount Moriah, the Lord appears to Jacob and establishes His Covenant with him. Arriving at his Uncle's House he Engages to Serve Seven Years for Rachel.

Chapter 31 --Jacob is Deceived and is given Leah in Place of Rachel, but is Given Rachel for Seven Years' more Service. Jacob serves Laban six years longer for Wages and becomes very Rich, when the Lord Appears to him and commands him to Return to the Land of Canaan. Jacob Obeys and goes from Laban. Rachel Steals her Father's gods, that he may not know where Jacob has fled. Laban Pursues him, but establishes a covenant of peace. Laban breaks his Covenant by sending his Son secretly to Esau that Jacob may Fall in his Hands. Esau, with Four Hundred Men, seek to Destroy Jacob.

Chapter 32 --Jacob sends a Message of Peace to his Brother, who rejects it with contempt, and Advances to Destroy him. Hosts of Angels cause the Fear of Jacob to come upon Esau, and he goes to meet him in peace, in answer to Jacob's Prayer. Jacob Wrestles with an Angel of the Lord.

Chapter 33 --Jacob goes to Shechem. Prince Shechem defiles Dinah the Daughter of Jacob. Shechem desires her for a Wife.

Chapter 34 --The Perfidy of Shechem. Simeon and Levi, Sons of Jacob, avenge the Honor of their Sister Dinah, Destroy all the Men of the City, and Spoil it. The People of Canaan conspire to avenge the cause of Shechem. Isaac and Jacob Pray for Succor.

Chapter 35 --The Fear of God come upon the Canaanites, and they do not Fight with Jacob.

Chapter 36 --Jacob and his House goes to Bethel, where the Lord appears to him, calls his name Israel, and Blesses him. The Generations of Jacob and Esau.

Chapter 37 --Jacob Returns to Shechem. The Kings of Canaan again assemble against Jacob. Jacob's Ten Sons with One Hundred and Two of their servants Fight against the Canaanites and Amorites, and are successful.

Chapter 38 --The Sons of Jacob Destroy many Cities of Canaan and all their people.

Chapter 39 --The Sons of Jacob Destroy many Cities of Canaan and all their people.

Chapter 40 --The Remaining Twenty-one Kings of Canaan, fearing the Sons of Jacob, make a permanent Peace with them.

Chapter 41 --Joseph, the Son of Jacob, Dreams of his Future Exaltation over his Brethren. Being his Father's Favorite, his Brethren become Jealous. Joseph is sent to Visit his Brethren. They conspire against him, and at the Suggestion of Reuben Place him in a Pit.

Chapter 42 --Joseph is sold to a company of Midianites, who in Turn sold him to the Ishmaelites, who take him down to Egypt. An account of his Journey thither, and of his Affliction on the Road.

Chapter 43 --Reuben's Anguish at not Finding Joseph in the Pit. The Brothers contrive to Deceive their Father by Dipping his coat in Blood. Jacob's Anguish at the loss of his Son.

Chapter 44 --Joseph is sold to Potiphar, an Officer of Pharaoh. Zelicah, the Wife of Potiphar, seeks to entice Joseph to do Evil, but all her advances are Rejected. Is Falsely Accused by her and is brought to Judgment. Is Acquitted by his Judges, but for the Sake of the Report against Potiphar's Wife, he is cast into Prison.

Chapter 45 --An Account of the Families of Jacob's Sons.

Chapter 46 --Joseph Interprets the Dreams of his Fellow-Prisoners.

Chapter 47 --Isaac Blesses his two Sons and Dies. His Property is Divided. Esau takes all the personal Property and Jacob chooses the Inheritance of the Land of Canaan, with the Cave of Machpelah for a Burying Place.

Chapter 48 --Pharaoh's Dreams. Not Receiving a Satisfactory Interpretation from the Magicians, he orders the Wise Men to be Slain. The King's Butler makes Joseph's Gifts known to Pharaoh. Joseph is Brought before the King, who Relates his Dreams to him. Joseph, by the Gift of God, Interprets them. A great Famine Predicted.

Chapter 49 --Pharaoh Assembles all the Great Men of the Kingdom, and desires to appoint Joseph to Govern Egypt. They Object because he cannot speak all the Seventy Languages of the Earth. An Angel visits Joseph and teaches him all the Languages of the Earth. When brought before the King, Joseph's Wisdom and Knowledge please Pharaoh and all the Princes of Egypt, and he is appointed the Second to the King, and all authority is given him. Joseph is made Wealthy and clothed in Princely apparel and proclaimed Governor of Egypt. Is given the Daughter of Potiphar for a Wife.

Chapter 50 --Joseph goes to help the Ishmaelites against their Enemies. Great Plenty prevails in Egypt as Joseph predicted. Joseph's Two Sons, Manasseh and Ephraim. Joseph stores up Food throughout Egypt. That stored by the Egyptians is spoiled. The Famine prevails over all the Land and Joseph sells corn to all the Egyptians and the surrounding Nations. Knowing that his Brethren will have to come to Egypt for Corn, he arranges to meet them when they come.

Chapter 51 --Jacob sends his Ten Oldest Sons to Egypt for Food. Tells them not to enter in at one gate but to go in Separately. On the way they Covenant together to seek for Joseph, and if they cannot ransom him they resolve to take him by force. They enter in at ten gates, and spread themselves to seek for Joseph three days. Joseph, in the meantime, has his men Seeking them. When found they are brought before Joseph who accuses them of being Spies. Joseph sends his Brethren home with corn, while Simeon is kept as a hostage till they shall again come to Egypt with their Younger Brother. They are astonished to find their Money in their sacks of corn.

Chapter 52 --Jacob's sorrow at the absence of Simeon; Refuses to let Benjamin go. But when he and his Household become pinched with hunger, Judah pleads for Benjamin. Tells his Father of the great glory and Authority of the Governor of Egypt and offers himself as Security for his Younger Brother. Jacob consents and sends his Sons again to Egypt with a conciliatory Letter and Present to the Governor.

Chapter 53 --Jacob's Sons again go to Egypt for Bread. Benjamin is presented before Joseph. Joseph's Cup. Joseph's conduct towards Benjamin by which he makes himself known to him. Resolves to prove his Brethren by taking away Benjamin from them, and puts his Cup in Benjamin's sack of corn and sends them Home to their Father. An Officer is sent after them who accuses them of purloining his Master's Cup. Brings them back to Joseph. Benjamin is taken from them by force, and they are told to go on their way.

Chapter 54 --Judah breaks through the Door to get to Joseph and Benjamin. He recounts the many Mighty Deeds of his Brethren and threatens to destroy all Egypt if Benjamin be not released. Joseph wrangles with his Brethren and accuses them of Selling their Brother. They commence to war upon the Egyptians, and frighten the whole Land. After satisfying himself of their repentance for selling their Brother, Joseph makes himself known to them, and bestows presents upon them. They are presented before Pharaoh, who commands Joseph to bring all his Father's Household Down to Egypt. He sends Chariots for this Purpose, laden with Presents, Luxuries and Clothing. Jacob's joy on Learning that Joseph is still Alive.

Chapter 55 --The Lord commands Jacob to go down to Egypt, where He will make him a Great Nation. Joseph and all Egypt go to meet Jacob to do him Honor when he arrives. The Land of Goshen is given to him and his Children.

Chapter 56 --After Seventeen Years' Dwelling in Egypt, Jacob dies, after Blessing his Children and commanding them to go in the Way of the Lord. Joseph and his Brethren and all the Mighty Men of Egypt go up to Canaan to Bury Jacob. Esau, claiming the Land of Canaan as his, will not Allow Joseph to Bury his Father. After Esau and many of his People are slain, Jacob is Buried by Force. All the Kings of Canaan come up to do him Honor.

Chapter 57 --The Sons of Esau make war with the Sons of Jacob and are smitten. Some are taken captive to Egypt. The Children of Esau enlist the People of Seir to Accompany them to Egypt to Deliver their Brethren. Joseph and his Brethren and the Egyptians slay Six Hundred Thousand. Nearly all the Mighty Men of Seir being Slain, they make war with the Children of Esau to Drive them from their Land. Esau prevails and utterly annihilates the Children of Seir.

Chapter 58 --Pharaoh dies and the whole Government of Egypt devolves upon Joseph, Pharaoh the Younger being but a nominal Ruler. The Children of Esau again come Against the Israelites, and are again smitten.

Chapter 59 --Jacob's Posterity in Egypt. After Prophesying that the Lord would Deliver his Brethren from Egypt, Joseph dies and is buried, and the Israelites are ruled over by the Egyptians.

Chapter 60 --Zepho, the Son of Eliphaz, the Son of Esau, who was taken Captive by Joseph where he Buried his Father, Escapes from Egypt with all his Men.

Chapter 61 --Petty Wars and contentions of the Nations of Africa with Zepho.

Chapter 62 --Petty Wars and contentions of the Nations of Africa with Zepho.

Chapter 63 --Petty Wars and contentions of the Nations of Africa with Zepho.

Chapter 64 --Zepho Leads a Great Army of Chittimites, Edomites, and Ishmaelites against Egypt. Three Hundred Thousand Egyptians put to Flight, but One Hundred and Fifty Men of Israel prevail against Zepho.

Chapter 65 --The Elders of Egypt conspire with Pharaoh and cunningly bring Israel into Bondage to them. Being afraid of their power, they afflict them in order to lessen the Number of the Children of Israel.

Chapter 66 --Pharaoh Decrees that every Male Child born in Israel shall be Killed, and still they increase.

Chapter 67 --Aaron is Born. On Account of Pharaoh's decree, many of the Sons of Israel live apart from their Wives. The King's counsellors devise another plan to lessen the number of Israel by drowning them. The Lord finds a means of preserving the Male Children.

Chapter 68 --Moses, a Child of Promise, is born. The Egyptian Women acting as Spies. Moses is discovered, and placed by his Mother in an Ark of Bulrushes. Is Found and Adopted by the Daughter of Pharaoh, and grows up among the King's Children.

Chapter 69 --Pharaoh Proclaims, that if any of the Israelites are short in their Labor, either in Bricks or Mortar, his Youngest Son shall be put in their Place.

Chapter 70 --Moses puts the King's crown upon his own head. Baalam and the Wise Men make this a Pretext against him. When grown up, Moses visits his Brethren, and learns of their Grievances. Moses obtains a day's rest on the Sabbath for all Israel.

Chapter 71 --Moses slays an Egyptian and being Discovered flees from Egypt. Aaron Prophecies.

Chapter 72 --Moses flees to Cush. At the Death of the king, he is chosen in his Stead. He Reigns Forty Years in Cush.

Chapter 73 --The Reign of Moses, and his Strategic Warfare.

Chapter 74 --War in Africa.

Chapter 75 --Thirty Thousand Ephraimites think it Time to get out of Egypt, Rise up to go to Canaan, but are Slain by the Philistines.

Chapter 76 --Moses leaves Cush and goes to the Land of Midian. Reuel, taking him for a Refugee, keeps him in prison for Ten Years. Is fed by Zipporah, the Daughter of Reuel. Pharaoh smitten of the Plague. Slays a child of the Israelites every day. He dies of the Rot, and his Son, Adikam, Reigns in his Stead.

Chapter 77 --Adikam Pharaoh Afflicts Israel more than ever. Moses is Released by Reuel, and Marries his Daughter Zipporah. Moses obtains possession of the Stick Jehovah.

Chapter 78 --Moses has Two Sons. Pharaoh withholds Straw from the Israelites.

Chapter 79 --The Lord appears to Moses and commands him to go down to Egypt to Deliver Israel. Aaron meets him. Israel on hearing of his Mission greatly rejoices. Moses and Aaron go to Pharaoh, who calls all the Magicians to meet Moses. They Perform Miracles as well as Moses, and thus Deceive the King. Pharaoh, not finding the Name of Jehovah on any of the Books of Records, says he does not know who He is, and will not let his People go. Moses and Aaron teach Pharaoh, but he will not hearken, but causes the labor of the Children of Israel to be increased. Moses being discouraged is told by the Lord that with an outstretched hand and heavy Plagues, Israel shall be Delivered.

Chapter 80 --After Two Years, Moses and Aaron again go to Pharaoh, but Pharaoh will not Hearken. The Lord afflicts Egypt with all manner of Plagues and Afflictions. The First-born of all the Egyptians is Slain. Pharaoh sends the Children of Israel away, and all the Egyptians rise up to urge their Departure, but they will not go in the Night.

Chapter 81 --The Departure of the Israelites from Egypt with Great Riches and Flocks and Herds. After the Egyptians bury their First-born, many of them go after the Israelites to induce them to return. But they refuse to return, and fight the Nobles of Egypt and drive them home. Pharaoh resolves with the Egyptians to pursue Israel and compel them to Return. The Children of Israel are divided--some wanting to go back. Moses prays for deliverance. The Lord tells him not to cry to him, but proceed. The waters of the Red Sea are Divided. The Israelites pass Through in Safety, but the Egyptians are utterly Destroyed. The Israelites proceed on their Journey, and are fed with Manna. The Children of Esau fight Israel, but the Latter Prevail.

Chapter 82 --The Ten Commandments are Given. While Moses is in the Mount, Aaron makes a Golden Calf, and Israel Worships it. Civil War. The Lord has a Sanctuary Built for His Worship in the Wilderness.

Chapter 83 --Aaron and his Sons are Placed in charge of the Lord's Service. The Sacrifices and Offerings. The Passover is Celebrated. The People lust for Flesh to eat. Their punishment. Moses sends Twelve Men to explore the Land of Canaan. Ten of them bring an Evil Report, and the People want to Return to Egypt. For their Lack of Faith that Generation shall not Live to obtain their Possessions.

Chapter 84 --The Earth Swallows up the Rebellious. The Children of Israel commanded not to War with the Children of Esau, or Moab. The Edomites will not let Israel pass through their Land.

Chapter 85 --Some of the Canaanites rise up to fight Israel, who are frightened and run away. But the Sons of Levi compel them to Return. They prevail over their Enemies. They must not touch Ammon. Og, King of Bashan. Balaam is called upon to curse Israel, but will not. Israel commits Whoredom with the Moabites, and they are Smitten with Pestilence.

Chapter 86 --All over twenty years of age at the time of Leaving Egypt die at the Expiration of Forty Years. Israel is Numbered. The Midianites are destroyed, and their Spoil is Divided among the People.

Chapter 87 --Moses appoints Joshua his successor. The Lord encourages Joshua. Moses teaches the children of Israel to Walk in the Way of the Lord. He goes up to Mount Abarim and dies there.

Chapter 88 --The Lord commands Joshua to prepare the People to pass over Jordan to possess the Land. Jericho is Besieged, Taken, and Destroyed. Achan brings evil upon the camp by Purloining the cursed thing, and Brings Destruction upon Himself. All is taken and Destroyed. The Gibeonites cunningly save themselves. Five Kings rise up against Israel and are destroyed. The Sun and Moon stand still at Joshua's Command.

Chapter 89 --Joshua's Song of Praise. The Wars of Israel.

Chapter 90 --The Edomites are Smitten by Chittim. The Land is Divided, and the people have Rest. Joshua being Advanced in Years Exhorts the people to Observe all the Laws of Moses, and then Dies.

Chapter 91 --The Elders Judge Israel. They drive out all the Canaanites and Inherit the Promised Land.

The Book of Jasher Chapter 2, Seth is Born

The Book of Jasher

Referred to in Joshua and Second Samuel

Faithfully Translated


Chapter 2

Seth is Born. People begin to Multiply and Become Idolatrous. Third Part of the Earth Destroyed. Earth cursed and becomes corrupt through the Wickedness of Men. Cainan, a Wise and Righteous King, Foretells the Flood. Enoch is Born

1 And it was in the hundred and thirtieth year of the life of Adam upon the earth, that he again knew Eve his wife, and she conceived and bare a son in his likeness and in his image, and she called his name Seth, saying, Because God has appointed me another seed in the place of Abel, for Cain has slain him.

2 And Seth lived one hundred and five years, and he begat a son; and Seth called the name of his son Enosh, saying, Because in that time the sons of men began to multiply, and to afflict their souls and hearts by transgressing and rebelling against God.

3 And it was in the days of Enosh that the sons of men continued to rebel and transgress against God, to increase the anger of the Lord against the sons of men.

4 And the sons of men went and they served other gods, and they forgot the Lord who had created them in the earth: and in those days the sons of men made images of brass and iron, wood and stone, and they bowed down and served them.

5 And every man made his god and they bowed down to them, and the sons of men forsook the Lord all the days of Enosh and his children; and the anger of the Lord was kindled on account of their works and abominations which they did in the earth.

6 And the Lord caused the waters of the river Gihon to overwhelm them, and he destroyed and consumed them, and he destroyed the third part of the earth, and notwithstanding this, the sons of men did not turn from their evil ways, and their hands were yet extended to do evil in the sight of the Lord.

7 And in those days there was neither sowing nor reaping in the earth; and there was no food for the sons of men and the famine was very great in those days.

8 And the seed which they sowed in those days in the ground became thorns, thistles and briers; for from the days of Adam was this declaration concerning the earth, of the curse of God, which he cursed the earth, on account of the sin which Adam sinned before the Lord.

9 And it was when men continued to rebel and transgress against God, and to corrupt their ways, that the earth also became corrupt.

10 And Enosh lived ninety years and he begat Cainan;

11 And Cainan grew up and he was forty years old, and he became wise and had knowledge and skill in all wisdom, and he reigned over all the sons of men, and he led the sons of men to wisdom and knowledge; for Cainan was a very wise man and had understanding in all wisdom, and with his wisdom he ruled over spirits and demons;

12 And Cainan knew by his wisdom that God would destroy the sons of men for having sinned upon earth, and that the Lord would in the latter days bring upon them the waters of the flood.

13 And in those days Cainan wrote upon tablets of stone, what was to take place in time to come, and he put them in his treasures.

14 And Cainan reigned over the whole earth, and he turned some of the sons of men to the service of God.

15 And when Cainan was seventy years old, he begat three sons and two daughters.

16 And these are the names of the children of Cainan; the name of the first born Mahlallel, the second Enan, and the third Mered, and their sisters were Adah and Zillah; these are the five children of Cainan that were born to him.

17 And Lamech, the son of Methusael, became related to Cainan by marriage, and he took his two daughters for his wives, and Adah conceived and bare a son to Lamech, and she called his name Jabal.

18 And she again conceived and bare a son, and called his name Jubal; and Zillah, her sister, was barren in those days and had no offspring.

19 For in those days the sons of men began to trespass against God, and to transgress the commandments which he had commanded to Adam, to be fruitful and multiply in the earth.

20 And some of the sons of men caused their wives to drink a draught that would render them barren, in order that they might retain their figures and whereby their beautiful appearance might not fade.

21 And when the sons of men caused some of their wives to drink, Zillah drank with them.

22 And the child-bearing women appeared abominable in the sight of their husbands as widows, whilst their husbands lived, for to the barren ones only they were attached.

23 And in the end of days and years, when Zillah became old, the Lord opened her womb.

24 And she conceived and bare a son and she called his name Tubal Cain, saying, After I had withered away have I obtained him from the Almighty God.

25 And she conceived again and bare a daughter, and she called her name Naamah, for she said, After I had withered away have I obtained pleasure and delight.

26 And Lamech was old and advanced in years, and his eyes were dim that he could not see, and Tubal Cain, his son, was leading him and it was one day that Lamech went into the field and Tubal Cain his son was with him, and whilst they were walking in the field, Cain the son of Adam advanced towards them; for Lamech was very old and could not see much, and Tubal Cain his son was very young.

27 And Tubal Cain told his father to draw his bow, and with the arrows he smote Cain, who was yet far off, and he slew him, for he appeared to them to be an animal.

28 And the arrows entered Cain's body although he was distant from them, and he fell to the ground and died.

29 And the Lord requited Cain's evil according to his wickedness, which he had done to his brother Abel, according to the word of the Lord which he had spoken.

30 And it came to pass when Cain had died, that Lamech and Tubal went to see the animal which they had slain, and they saw, and behold Cain their grandfather was fallen dead upon the earth.

31 And Lamech was very much grieved at having done this, and in clapping his hands together he struck his son and caused his death.

32 And the wives of Lamech heard what Lamech had done, and they sought to kill him.

33 And the wives of Lamech hated him from that day, because he slew Cain and Tubal Cain, and the wives of Lamech separated from him, and would not hearken to him in those days.

34 And Lamech came to his wives, and he pressed them to listen to him about this matter.

35 And he said to his wives Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice O wives of Lamech, attend to my words, for now you have imagined and said that I slew a man with my wounds, and a child with my stripes for their having done no violence, but surely know that I am old and grey-headed, and that my eyes are heavy through age, and I did this thing unknowingly.

36 And the wives of Lamech listened to him in this matter, and they returned to him with the advice of their father Adam, but they bore no children to him from that time, knowing that God's anger was increasing in those days against the sons of men, to destroy them with the waters of the flood for their evil doings.

37 And Mahlallel the son of Cainan lived sixty-five years and he begat Jared; and Jared lived sixty-two years and he begat Enoch.

The Book of Jasher Chapter 1, The Creation of Adam and Eve

The Book of Jasher

Referred to in Joshua and Second Samuel

Faithfully Translated



Chapter 1

The Creation of Adam and Eve. The Fall. Birth of Cain and Abel. Abel a Keeper of Sheep. Cain a Tiller of the Soil. The Quarrel Between the Brothers and the Result. Cain, the First Murderer, Cursed of God

1 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness, and God created man in his own image.

2 And God formed man from the ground, and he blew into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul endowed with speech.

3 And the Lord said, It is not good for man to be alone; I will make unto him a helpmeet.

4 And the Lord caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept, and he took away one of his ribs, and he built flesh upon it, and formed it and brought it to Adam, and Adam awoke from his sleep, and behold a woman was standing before him.

5 And he said, This is a bone of my bones and it shall be called woman, for this has been taken from man; and Adam called her name Eve, for she was the mother of all living.

6 And God blessed them and called their names Adam and Eve in the day that he created them, and the Lord God said, Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth.

7 And the Lord God took Adam and his wife, and he placed them in the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it; and he commanded them and said unto them, From every tree of the garden you may eat, but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat thereof you shall surely die.

8 And when God had blessed and commanded them, he went from them, and Adam and his wife dwelt in the garden according to the command which the Lord had commanded them.

9 And the serpent, which God had created with them in the earth, came to them to incite them to transgress the command of God which he had commanded them.

10 And the serpent enticed and persuaded the woman to eat from the tree of knowledge, and the woman hearkened to the voice of the serpent, and she transgressed the word of God, and took from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and she ate, and she took from it and gave also to her husband and he ate.

11 And Adam and his wife transgressed the command of God which he commanded them, and God knew it, and his anger was kindled against them and he cursed them.

12 And the Lord God drove them that day from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from which they were taken, and they went and dwelt at the east of the garden of Eden; and Adam knew his wife Eve and she bore two sons and three daughters.

13 And she called the name of the first born Cain, saying, I have obtained a man from the Lord, and the name of the other she called Abel, for she said, In vanity we came into the earth, and in vanity we shall be taken from it.

14 And the boys grew up and their father gave them a possession in the land; and Cain was a tiller of the ground, and Abel a keeper of sheep.

15 And it was at the expiration of a few years, that they brought an approximating offering to the Lord, and Cain brought from the fruit of the ground, and Abel brought from the firstlings of his flock from the fat thereof, and God turned and inclined to Abel and his offering, and a fire came down from the Lord from heaven and consumed it.

16 And unto Cain and his offering the Lord did not turn, and he did not incline to it, for he had brought from the inferior fruit of the ground before the Lord, and Cain was jealous against his brother Abel on account of this, and he sought a pretext to slay him.

17 And in some time after, Cain and Abel his brother, went one day into the field to do their work; and they were both in the field, Cain tilling and ploughing his ground, and Abel feeding his flock; and the flock passed that part which Cain had ploughed in the ground, and it sorely grieved Cain on this account.

18 And Cain approached his brother Abel in anger, and he said unto him, What is there between me and thee, that thou comest to dwell and bring thy flock to feed in my land?

19 And Abel answered his brother Cain and said unto him, What is there between me and thee, that thou shalt eat the flesh of my flock and clothe thyself with their wool?

20 And now therefore, put off the wool of my sheep with which thou hast clothed thyself, and recompense me for their fruit and flesh which thou hast eaten, and when thou shalt have done this, I will then go from thy land as thou hast said?

21 And Cain said to his brother Abel, Surely if I slay thee this day, who will require thy blood from me?

22 And Abel answered Cain, saying, Surely God who has made us in the earth, he will avenge my cause, and he will require my blood from thee shouldst thou slay me, for the Lord is the judge and arbiter, and it is he who will requite man according to his evil, and the wicked man according to the wickedness that he may do upon earth.

23 And now, if thou shouldst slay me here, surely God knoweth thy secret views, and will judge thee for the evil which thou didst declare to do unto me this day.

24 And when Cain heard the words which Abel his brother had spoken, behold the anger of Cain was kindled against his brother Abel for declaring this thing.

25 And Cain hastened and rose up, and took the iron part of his ploughing instrument, with which he suddenly smote his brother and he slew him, and Cain spilt the blood of his brother Abel upon the earth, and the blood of Abel streamed upon the earth before the flock.

26 And after this Cain repented having slain his brother, and he was sadly grieved, and he wept over him and it vexed him exceedingly.

27 And Cain rose up and dug a hole in the field, wherein he put his brother's body, and he turned the dust over it.

28 And the Lord knew what Cain had done to his brother, and the Lord appeared to Cain and said unto him, Where is Abel thy brother that was with thee?

29 And Cain dissembled, and said, I do not know, am I my brother's keeper? And the Lord said unto him, What hast thou done? The voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground where thou hast slain him.

30 For thou hast slain thy brother and hast dissembled before me, and didst imagine in thy heart that I saw thee not, nor knew all thy actions.

31 But thou didst this thing and didst slay thy brother for naught and because he spoke rightly to thee, and now, therefore, cursed be thou from the ground which opened its mouth to receive thy brother's blood from thy hand, and wherein thou didst bury him.

32 And it shall be when thou shalt till it, it shall no more give thee its strength as in the beginning, for thorns and thistles shall the ground produce, and thou shalt be moving and wandering in the earth until the day of thy death.

33 And at that time Cain went out from the presence of the Lord, from the place where he was, and he went moving and wandering in the land toward the east of Eden, he and all belonging to him.

34 And Cain knew his wife in those days, and she conceived and bare a son, and he called his name Enoch, saying, In that time the Lord began to give him rest and quiet in the earth.

35 And at that time Cain also began to build a city: and he built the city and he called the name of the city Enoch, according to the name of his son; for in those days the Lord had given him rest upon the earth, and he did not move about and wander as in the beginning.

36 And Irad was born to Enoch, and Irad begat Mechuyael and Mechuyael begat Methusael.

The Book of Jasher Chapter 3, Enoch Reigns over the Earth

The Book of Jasher

Referred to in Joshua and Second Samuel

Faithfully Translated


Chapter 3

Enoch Reigns over the Earth. Enoch Establishes Righteousness upon the Earth, and after Reigning Two Hundred and Forty Years is Translated

1 And Enoch lived sixty-five years and he begat Methuselah; and Enoch walked with God after having begot Methuselah, and he served the Lord, and despised the evil ways of men.

2 And the soul of Enoch was wrapped up in the instruction of the Lord, in knowledge and in understanding; and he wisely retired from the sons of men, and secreted himself from them for many days.

3 And it was at the expiration of many years, whilst he was serving the Lord, and praying before him in his house, that an angel of the Lord called to him from Heaven, and he said, Here am I.

4 And he said, Rise, go forth from thy house and from the place where thou dost hide thyself, and appear to the sons of men, in order that thou mayest teach them the way in which they should go and the work which they must accomplish to enter in the ways of God.

5 And Enoch rose up according to the word of the Lord, and went forth from his house, from his place and from the chamber in which he was concealed; and he went to the sons of men and taught them the ways of the Lord, and at that time assembled the sons of men and acquainted them with the instruction of the Lord.

6 And he ordered it to be proclaimed in all places where the sons of men dwelt, saying, Where is the man who wishes to know the ways of the Lord and good works? let him come to Enoch.

7 And all the sons of men then assembled to him, for all who desired this thing went to Enoch, and Enoch reigned over the sons of men according to the word of the Lord, and they came and bowed to him and they heard his word.

8 And the spirit of God was upon Enoch, and he taught all his men the wisdom of God and his ways, and the sons of men served the Lord all the days of Enoch, and they came to hear his wisdom.

9 And all the kings of the sons of men, both first and last, together with their princes and judges, came to Enoch when they heard of his wisdom, and they bowed down to him, and they also required of Enoch to reign over them, to which he consented.

10 And they assembled in all, one hundred and thirty kings and princes, and they made Enoch king over them and they were all under his power and command.

11 And Enoch taught them wisdom, knowledge, and the ways of the Lord; and he made peace amongst them, and peace was throughout the earth during the life of Enoch.

12 And Enoch reigned over the sons of men two hundred and forty-three years, and he did justice and righteousness with all his people, and he led them in the ways of the Lord.

13 And these are the generations of Enoch, Methuselah, Elisha, and Elimelech, three sons; and their sisters were Melca and Nahmah, and Methuselah lived eighty-seven years and he begat Lamech.

14 And it was in the fifty-sixth year of the life of Lamech when Adam died; nine hundred and thirty years old was he at his death, and his two sons, with Enoch and Methuselah his son, buried him with great pomp, as at the burial of kings, in the cave which God had told him.

15 And in that place all the sons of men made a great mourning and weeping on account of Adam; it has therefore become a custom among the sons of men to this day.

16 And Adam died because he ate of the tree of knowledge; he and his children after him, as the Lord God had spoken.

17 And it was in the year of Adam's death which was the two hundred and forty-third year of the reign of Enoch, in that time Enoch resolved to separate himself from the sons of men and to secret himself as at first in order to serve the Lord.

18 And Enoch did so, but did not entirely secret himself from them, but kept away from the sons of men three days and then went to them for one day.

19 And during the three days that he was in his chamber, he prayed to, and praised the Lord his God, and the day on which he went and appeared to his subjects he taught them the ways of the Lord, and all they asked him about the Lord he told them.

20 And he did in this manner for many years, and he afterward concealed himself for six days, and appeared to his people one day in seven; and after that once in a month, and then once in a year, until all the kings, princes and sons of men sought for him, and desired again to see the face of Enoch, and to hear his word; but they could not, as all the sons of men were greatly afraid of Enoch, and they feared to approach him on account of the Godlike awe that was seated upon his countenance; therefore no man could look at him, fearing he might be punished and die.

21 And all the kings and princes resolved to assemble the sons of men, and to come to Enoch, thinking that they might all speak to him at the time when he should come forth amongst them, and they did so.

22 And the day came when Enoch went forth and they all assembled and came to him, and Enoch spoke to them the words of the Lord and he taught them wisdom and knowledge, and they bowed down before him and they said, May the king live! May the king live!

23 And in some time after, when the kings and princes and the sons of men were speaking to Enoch, and Enoch was teaching them the ways of God, behold an angel of the Lord then called unto Enoch from heaven, and wished to bring him up to heaven to make him reign there over the sons of God, as he had reigned over the sons of men upon earth.

24 When at that time Enoch heard this he went and assembled all the inhabitants of the earth, and taught them wisdom and knowledge and gave them divine instructions, and he said to them, I have been required to ascend into heaven, I therefore do not know the day of my going.

25 And now therefore I will teach you wisdom and knowledge and will give you instruction before I leave you, how to act upon earth whereby you may live; and he did so.

26 And he taught them wisdom and knowledge, and gave them instruction, and he reproved them, and he placed before them statutes and judgments to do upon earth, and he made peace amongst them, and he taught them everlasting life, and dwelt with them some time teaching them all these things.

27 And at that time the sons of men were with Enoch, and Enoch was speaking to them, and they lifted up their eyes and the likeness of a great horse descended from heaven, and the horse paced in the air;

28 And they told Enoch what they had seen, and Enoch said to them, On my account does this horse descend upon earth; the time is come when I must go from you and I shall no more be seen by you.

29 And the horse descended at that time and stood before Enoch, and all the sons of men that were with Enoch saw him.

30 And Enoch then again ordered a voice to be proclaimed, saying, Where is the man who delighteth to know the ways of the Lord his God, let him come this day to Enoch before he is taken from us.

31 And all the sons of men assembled and came to Enoch that day; and all the kings of the earth with their princes and counsellors remained with him that day; and Enoch then taught the sons of men wisdom and knowledge, and gave them divine instruction; and he bade them serve the Lord and walk in his ways all the days of their lives, and he continued to make peace amongst them.

32 And it was after this that he rose up and rode upon the horse; and he went forth and all the sons of men went after him, about eight hundred thousand men; and they went with him one day's journey.

33 And the second day he said to them, Return home to your tents, why will you go? perhaps you may die; and some of them went from him, and those that remained went with him six day's journey; and Enoch said to them every day, Return to your tents, lest you may die; but they were not willing to return, and they went with him.

34 And on the sixth day some of the men remained and clung to him, and they said to him, We will go with thee to the place where thou goest; as the Lord liveth, death only shall separate us.

35 And they urged so much to go with him, that he ceased speaking to them; and they went after him and would not return;

36 And when the kings returned they caused a census to be taken, in order to know the number of remaining men that went with Enoch; and it was upon the seventh day that Enoch ascended into heaven in a whirlwind, with horses and chariots of fire.

37 And on the eighth day all the kings that had been with Enoch sent to bring back the number of men that were with Enoch, in that place from which he ascended into heaven.

38 And all those kings went to the place and they found the earth there filled with snow, and upon the snow were large stones of snow, and one said to the other, Come, let us break through the snow and see, perhaps the men that remained with Enoch are dead, and are now under the stones of snow, and they searched but could not find him, for he had ascended into heaven.


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