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The Oera Linda Book

Written in 1256 AD, from a diary
which was put together 560-558 BC.

from the Original Frisian text

verified by Dr. Ottema

by :

William R. Sandbach

Londen, Trubner & Co, 1876


Frontpage of the Dutch translation of the Oera Linda Book (1876)


Page 45 from the Oera Linda Manuscript


The Oera Linda Book, Intro

The Oera Linda Book

Forgery or Fact

There exists one very old Frisian manuscript named the Oera Linda book. It's forewords were written in AD 1256, although its main section was a diary kept about 2000 years, which was put together 560-558 BC.

The authenticity of the Oera Linda Book has not been proved nor disproved.

There is even evidence that most parts of the book are based on ancient events regarding the Lowlands of Europe. Prove of this we can find in the writings and retellings of the writings of Homer, Strabo, Tachitus and even in Celts and German histories.

Against the prevailing opinion of Historians, there are many reasons to believe that "The Oera Linda Book" is one of the most important books about European history from about 3000 BC to at least to about 500 BC.

Although the last chapter - actually the first chapter - of it was written 1256 AD, it was composed to its preserved form 803 AD. The most important part of it - "The Book of Adela's Followers" - was written from 560 BC to 558 BC, but was based on notes that had been kept at least 2000 years.

When we compare the story in "The Oera Linda Book" with other stories which occurred in the same time (about 2,200 BC) in the Middle East (Egypt and Mesopotamia) we can't deny that the occurrences must be based on reality.

From our point of view, the most important single event described in it was the destruction of Atland *, which happened 2194 BC.

* In my opinion is Atland not the same as Atlantis, believed by many historians, but the middle and north part of the present North Sea. There is evidence that Great Britain and Europe were once one continent in the past with a delta between the present Dutch and British coast. The river Rhine (Rene) in the lowlands was at that time connected with the Teems river near London or possibly the Tyre river near New Castle in North-Humbria England..

The North Sea is still at present day a shallow sea (between 30 and 130 meters deep). In the Dutch territory of the North Sea there are still, so called, Sandbanks (Doggers bank and others) on witch once trees grew, most of them were once inhabited too. In my opinion was Atland situated in the present North Sea and sunk in a period of global catastrophic events around 2,200 BC.

A Global catastrophe 2,200 BC

This is the just the time when also the Akkadian (Sumer) empire fell in ruins. This is the time when the first, and in many respects the greatest kingdom of Egypt was transformed into the first Interregnum. This is the time, when the great Indus nation with its towns Mohenjo-daro and Harappa got its sudden end. This is the time when in China Emperor Yu ruled, during his reign a Super Nova was seen in the sky and stones fell from heaven.

ALL this events took place at the same time, about 2,200 BC.

There is a standstill of several centuries all over ancient civilized world, including such faraway places as China and North-Western Europe. The Holocene climate was globally changed from warm and wet to cold and dry. There are impact craters in Argentina and Estonia, whose age is around 4000 years.

Many ancient stories from all over the world mention a global disaster with stones falling from heaven, dust and fire. Even historians are aware of a global catastrophe about 2,200 BC.

Read more at http://www.tilmari.pp.fi/tilmari2.htm

The people who survived the great tsunamis, that washed over at least the Canary Islands, Madeira, Azores, Ireland, Britain, escaped to the Mediterranean. First they bought - yes bought, not occupied by force, Crete.

They brought their civilization, the Minoan one, after their leader Minno to Crete. When during next centuries, the world slowly recovered from the catastrophe, they as great seafarers, conquered the whole area, that became to be called Indo-European. In East they went to India, in South they captured the coastal areas of Mediterranean.*

In Europe they conquered the whole coast from Italy, through Iberia until the Southern Sweden (Skaneland) in North and Lethuania in North-East. Only the Greeks tried to stop them. And the thick forests of Twiskland (Germany) were a hinder for them, especially because behind them there were still more dangerous people, the Finns, and the Magyars.

Most skeptics are telling around that in the Oera Linda Book is written that the Frisians fantasize that they are the ancestors of MOST civilizations but that's not true and is not written in the WHOLE book. These kind of skepticism is only based on the, in their eyes, thrilling and for historians "strange" interpretation of our known ancient history. Maybe they are afraid to rewrite the history of Europe again.

Alexander the Great destroyed their culture in the East, and the Roman Empire in Southern Europe. The Romans never conquered the Frisians in the Lowlands even they tried to do so several times. In the 8th century AD the Roman Catholic church tried to conquer the Frisians but they murdered St. Boniface in 754 AD. *Later when Christianity began to disperse to the North in the 11th century Charlemagne and others made havoc of the rest of their culture but their language survived until this day.

* born c. 675 , Wessex, England, died June 5, 754 , Dokkum, Frisia [now in The Netherlands]

Their last resort was Friesland (Frya's people) in Holland, Germany and Denmark. The Frisian language gave much to the later Dutch, Danish, German and Swedish languages. Even at present day the Frisians in Holland, Denmark and Germany still speak the same Frisian language.

I give the skeptics of The Oera Linda Book some points to consider :

1. If we had no written history of the, so called, Golden Age in Holland (16th and 17th century) and your forefathers tells you the following story :

Once, a long time ago, our "small" country, at the border of the North-Sea, was the most important and powerful seafaring nation of the World. At that time we were the first nation who introduced global trade-companies called VOC and WIC (the first Multinationals), during our exploration of the World we made a trade-union with Japan, we conquered the Indonesian archipel in the Great Ocean, we conquered a part of the South-American coast (Suriname, and some islands), we build a trade-post in Manhattan (Peter Stuyvesant) at present New-York in the USA, we conquered parts of present Argentina, we conquered parts of West and South-Africa, we discovered Tasmania, present Australia (Abel Tasman). At that time, on top of our world power we owned as much land as 900 times the size of our own country at the North Sea (The Netherlands) itself.

Would you believe them ?

The reader can imagine that most of us would not believe this story and consider them as fairytale to fantastic to be true because The Netherlands is too small to have such power and rich history. But we know that it is the truth because we have the written history in books and prove in stone ruins left behind in all these countries.

2. Why do most skeptics believe unconditionally the stories in The Bible ? (consider that the story in the Oera Linda Book, The Eddas and many others, are much older than the Bible. Religion is not a privilege reserved for the Near East alone).

3. Why do most skeptics accept most stories of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, India, China and other ancient Nations as true ?

4. Why did most skeptics not believe in the story of the Trojan Wars until Troy was discovered in the19th century ?

Consider that most Myths and Sages from all over the world are based on "real" events who took place in ancient times, including the "fantastic" stories about Giants and Monsters.

The time has come that we accept these stories as fact and not struggle with each other about little details. When we do so we can search together and someday we will find evidence of Ancient History.

Some excerpts from The Oera Linda Book




click the image to enlarge

4. Written at Liudwerd, in the year 3449 after Atland was submerged - that is, according to the Christian reckoning, the year 1256.

3449 -1256 -1 (no 0) = 2194 BC.



1. Minno was an ancient sea-king. He was a seer and a wizard, and he gave laws to the Kretans. He was born at Lindawrda, and after all his wanderings he had the happiness to die at Lindahem.

Minoan Crete.

17. "Ewa" means that sentiment which is implanted in the breast of every man in order that he may know what is right and what is wrong... "Ewa" has also another meaning; that is, tranquil, smooth...

18. ..."Ewa" is another symbol of the World, who remains always just and unchangeable.

19. "Ewa", eternal and unalterable, the sign of wisdom and rectitude, must be sought after by all pious people, and must be possessed by all judges.


1. When Nyhellenia, whose real name was Minerva, was well established, and the Krekalanders loved her as well as our own people did, there came some princes and priests to her burgh and asked Minerva where her possessions lay.

2. Nyhellenia answered "... What I have inherited is the love of wisdom, justice, and freedom...".

3. The gentlemen went away laughing, and saying "Your humble servants, wise Hellenia."

4. But they missed their object, for the people took up this name as a name of honour... the good Krekalanders understood at once that it was calumny.


1. When I came away from Athenia with my followers, we arrived at an island named by my crew Kreta, because of the cries that the inhabitants raised on our arrival. When they really saw that we did not come to make war, they were quiet, so that at last I was able to buy a harbour in exchange for a boat and some iron implements, and a piece of land.

2. When we had been settled there a short time, and they discovered that we had no slaves, they were very much astonished; and when I explained to them that we had laws which made everybody equal, they wished to have the same...


1. Before the bad time came our land was the most beautiful in the World. The sun rose higher, and there was seldom frost. The trees and shrubs produced various fruits, which are now lost. In the fields we had not only barley, oats, and rye, but wheat which shone like gold, and which could be baked in the sun's rays. The years were not counted, for one was as happy as another.

2. On one side we were bounded by the World Sea, on which no one but us might or could sail; on the other side we were hedged in by the broad Twiskland, through which Finda's people dared not come on account of the thick forests and the wild beasts.

Twiskland = Tyskland = Germany


1. During the whole summer the sun had been hidden behind the clouds, as if unwilling to look upon the Earth. There was perpetual calm, and the damp mist hung like a wet sail over the houses and marshes. The air was heavy and oppressive, and in men's hearts was neither joy nor cheerfulness.

2. In the midst of this stillness the Earth began to tremble as if she was dying. The mountains opened to vomit forth fire and flames. Some sank into the bosom of the Earth, and in other places mountains rose out of the plain.

Aldland, called Atland by the Sturian navigators who lived there, disappeared, and the wild waves rose so high over hill and dale that everything was buried in the sea. Many people were swallowed up by the Earth, and others who had escaped the fire perished in the water.

Atland = Aldland = Oldland.

3. It was also in Finda's land that the Earth vomited fire, and in Twiskland (Germany). Whole forests were burned one after the other, and when the wind blew from that quarter our land was covered with ashes. Rivers changed their course, and at their mouths new islands were formed of sand and drift.

4. During three years this continued, but at length it ceased, and forests became visible. Many countries were submerged, and in other places land rose above the sea, and the wood was destroyed through the half of Twiskland. Troops of Finda's people came and settled in the empty places. Our dispersed people were exterminated or made slaves. Then watchfulness was doubly impressed upon us, and time taught us that union is force.



click the image to enlarge

5. In the year 101 (2093 BC) after the submersion of Aldland a people came out of the east. That people was driven by another. Behind us, in Twiskland, they fell into disputes, divided into two parties, and each went its own way. Of the one no account has come to us, but the other came in the back of our Skenland, which was thinly inhabited, particularly the upper part. Therefore they were able to take possession of it without contest, and as they did no other harm, we would not make war about it.

Skenland = Skane/Skone (Southern Sweden). 101 years = 2194 -101 = 2093BC.

As mentioned above the time in which Aldland sunk (2,194 BC) and the end of most civilizations in the East (Akkad, Egypt and India) can/t be a coincidence and is too remarkable to be accidental. Even when we consider that some parts of this manuscript are beside the truth then there are still too many parts left that can be compared with other ancient writers from Greece and Rome, including the dates in which the stories took place.

When we read some of these stories from Plato and Hesiod we can see that the story of the sunken Altland and the fire of the lands (2,194BC( were also known in later times in Egypt (Solon) and Greece.

From Plato's Timaeus

The Priest of Sais, a city in the Nile Delta which was a central point of contact with Greece, to Solon, Greek statesman:

"There have been and will be many and diverse destructions of mankind, Of which the greatest are by fire and water, and lesser ones by countless other means. "For in truth, the story that is told In your country as well as ours, How once upon a time Phaethon, Son of Helios, Yoked his Father's chariot, And because he was unable to drive it along the course taken by his father Burnt up all that was upon the Earth, And himself perished by a thunderboltThat story, as it is told, has the fashion of a legend. "But the truth of it lies In the occurrence of a shifting of the bodies in the heavens, Which move around the Earth, And a destruction of the things on the Earth by fierce fire, Which recurs at long intervals.

This could have been a notion by one of today's astronomers.

"At such times All they that dwell on the mountains and in high places Suffer destruction more than those who dwell near the sea. And in our case, The Nile, our savior in other ways, Saves us also from this calamity by rising high. And when on the other hand, the Gods purge the Earth with a flood of waters, All the herdsmen and shepherds that are in the mountains are saved, But those in the cities of your land are swept into the sea by the streams. Wheras in our country, Neither then, nor at any other time, Does the water pour down over our fields from above; On the contrary, It all tends naturally to well up from below. Hence it is for these reasons, That what is preserved here is reckoned to be the most ancient. ...And if any event has occurred, That is noble or great or in any way conspicuous, Whether it be in your country or in ours, Or in some other place of which we know by report, All such events are recorded from old And preserved here in our temples. Wheras your people and the others Are but newly equipped, every time, with letters and all such arts as civilized states require. And when, After the usual interval of years, Like a plague, The Flood of Heaven comes sweeping down anew upon your people, It leaves none of you but the unlettered and uncultured, So that you become young as ever, with no knowledge of all that happened in old times, in this land or in your own."

Extract from Eberhard Zanger's translation of Plato's Timaeus, from his book "The Flood from Heaven: Deciphering the Atlantis Legend", William Morrow & Company, 1992

Hesiod's Theogony

In his book the Theogony, which sets out the descent of the gods, the Greek poet Hesiod recorded an account of a battle between Zeus and the Titans which appears to be a record of an impact event. Not surprisingly, the battle takes place in Tartarus, in the Atlantic.

"The boundless sea rang terribly around, And the earth crashed loudly: Wide Heaven was shaken and groaned, And high Olympus reeled from its foundation Under the charge of the undying gods, And a heavy quaking reached dim Tartarus And the deep sound of their feet in the fearful onset And of their hard missiles. So, then, they launched their grievous shafts upon one another, And the cry of both armies as they shouted Reached to starry heaven; And they met together with a great battle-cry. "Then Zeus no longer held back his might; But straight his heart was filled with fury And he showed forth all his strength. From Heaven and from Olympus he came forthwith, Hurling his lightning: The bold flew thick and fast From his strong hand Together with thunder and lightning, Whirling an awesome flame. The life-giving earth crashed around in burning, And the vast wood crackled loud with fire all about. All the land seethed, And Ocean's streams And the unfruitful sea. The hot vapour lapped round the earthborn Titans: Flame unspeakable rose to the bright upper air: The flashing glare of the thunder-stone and lightning Blinded their eyes for all that there were strong. Astounding heat seized Chaos: And to see with eyes and to hear the sound with ears It seemed even as if Earth and wide Heaven above came together; For such a mighty crash would have arisen If Earth were being hurled to ruin, And Heaven from on high were hurling her down; So great a crash was there While the gods were meeting together in strife. Also the winds brought rumbling earthquake and duststorm, Thunder and lightning and the lurid thunderbolt, Which are the shafts of great Zeus, And carried the clangour and the warcry Into the midst of the two hosts. An horrible uproar of terrible strife arose: Mighty deeds were shown and the battle inclined. But until then, They kept at one another And fought continually in cruel war. And amongst the foremost Cottus and Briareos And Gyes insatiate for war raised fierce fighting: Three hundred rocks, One upon another, They launched from their strong hands And overshadowed the Titans with their missiles, And buried them beneath the wide-pathed earth, And bound them in bitter chains When they had conquered them by their strength For all their great spirit, As far beneath the earth to Tartarus. For a brazen anvil Falling down from heaven nine nights and days Would reach the earth upon the tenth: And again, A brazen anvil Falling from earth nine nights and days Would reach Tartarus upon the tenth. Round it runs a fence of bronze, And night spreads in triple line all about it like a neck-circlet, While above grow the roots of the earth and unfruitful sea. There by the counsel of Zeus who drives the clouds The Titan gods are hidden under misty gloom, In a dank place where are the ends of the huge earth.

Extract from Hugh G. Evelyn-White's translation of Hesiod's Theogony,

Conclusion :

There is more prove than disprove that The Oera Linda Book is an important report of the European history.


The Oera Linda Book, Plates and Maps

The Oera Linda Book

Written in 1256 AD, from a diary
which was put together 560-558 BC.

from the Original Frisian text

verified by Dr. Ottema

by :

William R. Sandbach

Londen, Trubner & Co, 1876

Plates and Maps

PLATE 1....The Standing Alphabet given to Fasta by Frya


PLATE 2....Free Lands at the Time of Fasta, 2190 BC


PLATE 3....The First Celtic Empire of Kalta, 1600 BC


PLATE 4....The Voyages of Jon and Minerva, 1600 BC


PLATE 5....The Return of the Geertmen, 303 BC


PLATE 6....Free Lands at the Time of Gosa, 300 BC


PLATE 7....A Page from the Book of Adela's Followers

Page 45 from the Oera Linda Manuscript


PLATE 8....The Oera Linda Family Tree

image8.gif (16212 bytes)

The Oera Linda Book, 2 Adela's followers

The Oera Linda Book

Written in 1256 AD, from a diary
which was put together 560-558 BC.

from the Original Frisian text

verified by Dr. Ottema

by :

William R. Sandbach

Londen, Trubner & Co, 1876

The Book of Adela's followers

02 Chapter I: Thirty years after the day on which the folk-mother was murdered by the commander Magy was a time of great distress -

1. All the states that lie on the other side of the Wrsara had been wrested from us, and had fallen under the power of Magy, and it looked as if his power was to become supreme over the whole land.

2. To avert this misfortune a general assembly of the people was summoned, which was attended by all the men who stood in good repute with the femmes. Then at the end of three days the whole council was in confusion, and in the same position as when they came together. Thereupon Adela demanded to be heard, and said:

3. "You all know that I was three years burgh-femme. You know also that I was chosen for folk-mother, and that I refused to be folk-mother because I wished to marry Apol; but what you do not know is, that I have watched everything that has happened, as if I had really been your folk-mother. I have constantly travelled about, observing what was going on. By that means I have become acquainted with many things that others do not know.

4. "You said yesterday that our relatives on the other side of the Wrsara were dull and cowardly; but I may tell you that the Magy has not won a single village from them by force of arms; but only by detestable deceit, and still more by the rapacity of their dukes and nobles.

5. "Frya has said we must not admit amongst us any but free people; but what have they done? They have imitated our enemies, and instead of killing their prisoners, or letting them go free, they have despised the counsel of Frya, and have made slaves of them.

6. "Because they have acted thus, Frya cared no longer to watch over them. They robbed others of their freedom, and therefore lost their own.

7. "This is well known to you, but I will tell you how they came to sink so low. The Finnar women had children. These grew up with our Children of Frya. They played and gamboled together in the fields, and were also together by the hearth.

8. "There they learned with pleasure the loose ways of the Finnar, because they were bad and new; and thus they became corrupted in spite of the efforts of their parents. When the children grew up, and saw that the children of the Finnar handled no weapons, and scarcely worked, they took a distaste for work, and became proud.

9. "The principal men and their cleverest sons made up to the wanton daughters of the Finnar; and their own daughters, led astray by this bad example, allowed themselves to be beguiled by the handsome young Finnar in derision of their depraved fathers.

10. "When the Magy found this out, he took the handsomest of his Finnar and Magyarar, and promised them red cows with golden horns to let themselves be taken prisoners by our people in order to spread his doctrines. His people did even more. Children disappeared, were taken away to Upsaland, and after they had been brought up in his pernicious doctrines, were sent back.

11. "When these pretended prisoners had learned our language, they persuaded the dukes and nobles that they should become subject to the Magy - that then their sons would succeed to them without having to be elected.

12. "Those who by their good deeds had gained a piece of land in front of their house, they promised should receive in addition a piece behind; those who had got a piece before and behind, should have a complete circuit; and those who had a complete circuit should have a whole freehold. If the elders were true to Frya, then they changed their course, and turned to the degenerate sons.

13. "Yesterday there were among you those who would have called the whole people together, to compel the eastern states to return to their duty. According to my humble opinion, they would have made a great mistake.

14. "Suppose that there was a very serious epidemic among the cattle, would you run the risk of sending your healthy cattle among the sick ones? Certainly not. Every one must see that doing that would turn out very badly for the whole of the cattle. Who, then, would be so imprudent as to send their children among a people wholly depraved?

15. "If I were to give you any advice, it would be to choose a new folk-mother. I know that you are in a difficulty about it, because out of the thirteen burgh-femmes that we still have remaining, eight are candidates for the dignity; but I should pay no attention to that.

16. "Tuntia, the burgh-femme of Medeasblik, who is not a candidate, is a person of knowledge and sound sense, and quite as attached to our people and our customs as all the rest together.

I should further recommend that you should visit all the burghs, and write down all the laws of Frya's Tex, as well as all the histories, and all that is written on the walls, in order that it may not be destroyed with the burghs.

17. "It stands written that every folk-mother and every burgh-femme shall have assistants and messengers - twenty-one femmes and seven apprentices.

18. "If I might add more, I would recommend that all the respectable girls in the burghs should be taught; for I say positively, and time will show it, that if you wish to remain true Children of Frya, never to be vanquished by fraud or arms, you must take care to bring up your daughters as true Frya's daughters.

19. "You must teach the children how great our nation has been, what great men our forefathers were, how great we still are, if we compare ourselves to others.

20. "You must tell them of the wizards, of their magical deeds and distant travels. All these stories must be told by the fireside and in the field, wherever it may be, in times of joy or sorrow; and if you wish to impress it on the brains and the hearts of your sons, you must let it flow through the lips of your wives and your daughters."

21. Adela's advice was followed.

22. These are the reeves under whose direction this book is composed:

23. Apol, Adela's husband; three times a sea king; reeve over Astflyland and over Lindawrda. The burghs Liudgarda, Lindahem, and Stavia are under his care.

24. The Saxman Storo, Sytia's husband; reeve over Hagafenna and Walda. Nine times he was chosen as duke, that is, commander. The burghs Buda and Mannagardaforda are under his care.

25. Abelo, Jaltia's husband; reeve over the Sudar Flyland. He was three times commander. The burghs Aken, Liudburch, and Katsburch are under his care.

26. Enoch, Dywek's husband; reeve over Westflyland and Texland. He was chosen nine times for sea king. Waraburch, Medeasblik, Forana, and Fryasburch are under his care.

27. Foppa, Dunro's husband; reeve over the Siugon Elanda. He was five times sea king. The burgh Walhallagara is under his care.

02 Chapter II: This was inscribed upon the walls of Fryasburch in Texland, as well as at Stavia and Medeasblik -

1. It was Frya's Day, and seven times seven years had elapsed since Fasta was appointed folk-mother by the desire of Frya.

The burgh of Medeasblik was ready, and a burgh-femme was chosen.

Fasta was about to light her new lamp, and when she had done so in the presence of all the people, Frya called from her watch-star, so that every one could hear it:

2. "Fasta, take your style and write the things, that I may not speak."

3. Fasta did as she was bid, and thus we became Frya's Children, and our earliest history began.

4. This is our earliest history:

5. Wr-Alda, who alone is eternal and good, made the beginning. Then commenced time. Time wrought all things, even Irtha. Irtha bore grass, herbs, and trees, all useful and all noxious animals. All that is good and useful she brought forth by day, and all that is bad and injurious by night.

6. After the twelfth Yule-feast she brought forth three girls:

7. Lyda out of fierce heat.

8. Finda out of strong heat.

9. Frya out of moderate heat.

10. When the last came into existence, Wr-Alda breathed his spirit upon her in order that men might be bound to him. As soon as they were full grown they took pleasure and delight in the visions of Wr-Alda.

11. Hatred found its way among them.

12. They each bore twelve sons and twelve daughters - at every Yuletide a couple.

Thence came all mankind.

13. Lyda was black, with hair curled like a lamb's; her eyes shone like stars, and shot out glances like those of a bird of prey.

14. Lyda was acute. She could hear a snake glide, and could smell a fish in the water.

15. Lyda was strong and nimble. She could bend a large tree, yet when she walked she did not bruise a flower-stalk.

16. Lyda was violent. Her voice was loud, and when she screamed in anger every creature quailed.

17. Wonderful Lyda! She had no regard for laws; her actions were governed by her passions. To help the weak she would kill the strong, and when she had done it she would weep by their bodies.

18. Poor Lyda! She turned grey by her mad behaviour, and at last she died heart-broken by the wickedness of her children.

19. Foolish children! They accused each other of their mother's death. They howled and fought like wolves, and while they did this the birds devoured the corpse. Who can refrain from tears at such a recital?

20. Finda was yellow, and her hair was like the mane of a horse. She could not bend a tree, but where Lyda killed one lion she killed ten.

21. Finda was seductive. Her voice was sweeter than any bird's. Her eyes were alluring and enticing, but whoever looked upon them became her slave.

22. Finda was unreasonable. She wrote thousands of laws, but she never obeyed one. She despised the frankness of the good, and gave herself up to flatterers.

23. That was her misfortune. Her head was too full, but her heart was too vain. She loved nobody but herself, and she wished that all should love her.

24. False Finda! Honey-sweet were her words, but those who trusted them found sorrow at hand.

25. Selfish Finda! She wished to rule everybody, and her sons were like her. They made their sisters serve them, and they slew each other for the mastery.

26. Treacherous Finda! One wrong word would irritate her, and the cruellest deeds did not affect her. If she saw a lizard swallow a spider, she shuddered; but if she saw her children kill a Child of Frya, her bosom swelled with pleasure.

27. Unfortunate Finda! She died in the bloom of her age, and the mode of her death is unknown.

28. Hypocritical children! Her corpse was buried under a costly stone, pompous inscriptions were written on it, and loud lamentations were heard at it, but in private not a tear was shed.

29. Despicable people! The laws that Finda established were written on golden tablets, but the object for which they were made was never attained. The good laws were abolished, and selfishness instituted bad ones in their place.

30. O Finda! Then Irtha overflowed with blood, and your children were mown down like grass.

31. Yes, Finda! Those were the fruits of your vanity. Look down from your watch-star and weep.

32. Frya was white like the snow at sunrise, and the blue of her eyes vied with the rainbow.

33. Beautiful Frya! Like the rays of the sun shone the locks of her hair, which were as fine as spiders' webs.

34. Clever Frya! When she opened her lips the birds ceased to sing and the leaves to quiver.

35. Powerful Frya! At the glance of her eye the lion lay down at her feet and the adder withheld his poison.

36. Pure Frya! Her food was honey, and her beverage was dew gathered from the cups of the flowers.

37. Sensible Frya! The first lesson that she taught her children was self-control, and the second was the love of virtue; and when they were grown she taught them the value of liberty; for she said:

38. "Without liberty all other virtues serve to make you slaves, and to disgrace your origin."

39. Generous Frya! She never allowed metal to be dug from Irtha for her own benefit, but when she did it it was for the general use.

40. Most happy Frya! Like the starry host in the firmament, her children clustered around her.

41. Wise Frya! When she had seen her children reach the seventh generation, she summoned them all to Flyland, and there gave them her Tex, saying:

42. "Let this be your guide, and it can never go ill with you."

43. Exalted Frya! When she had thus spoken Irtha shook like Wr-Alda's Sea. The ground of Flyland sunk beneath her feet, the air was dimmed by tears, and when they looked for their mother she was already risen to her watch-star; then at length thunder burst from the clouds, and the lightning wrote upon the firmament, "Watch!"

44. Far-seeing Frya! The land from which she had risen was now a stream, and except her Tex all that was in it was overwhelmed.

45. Obedient children! When they came to themselves again, they made this high mound and built this burgh upon it, and on the walls they wrote the Tex, and that every one should be able to find it they called the land about it Texland. Therefore it shall remain as long as Irtha shall be Irtha.


02 Chapter III: Frya's Tex -

1. Hail to the Children of Frya! At last you shall see me again. Though him only can I recognise as free who is neither a slave to another nor to himself. This is my counsel: when in dire distress, and when mental and physical energy avail nothing, then have recourse to the spirit of Wr-Alda; but do not appeal to him before you have tried all other means, for I tell you beforehand, and time will prove its truth, that those who give way to discouragement sink under their burdens.

2. To Wr-Alda's spirit always shall you bare and bend your knees in thricefold gratitude - for what you have received, for what you do receive, and for the hope of aid in time of need.

3. You have seen how speedily I have come to your assistance. Do likewise to your neighbour, but wait not for his entreaties. The suffering would curse you, my femmes would erase your name from the book, and I would regard you as a stranger.

4. Let not your neighbour express his thanks to you with bare and bended knees, which are always reserved for Wr-Alda's spirit alone. Envy would assail you, wisdom would ridicule you, and my femmes would accuse you of irreverence.

5. Four things are given for your enjoyment - air, water, land, and fire - but Wr-Alda is the sole possessor of them. Therefore my counsel to you is, choose upright men who will fairly divide the labour and the fruits, so that no man shall be exempt from work or from the duty of defence.

6. If ever it should happen that one of your people should sell his freedom, he is not of you, he is a bastard. I counsel you to expel him and his mother from the land. Repeat this to your children morning, noon, and night, till they think of it in their dreams.

7. If any man shall deprive another, even his debtor, of his liberty, let him be to you as a vile slave; and I advise you to burn his body and that of his mother in an open place, and bury them fifty feet below the ground, so that no grass shall grow upon them. It would poison your cattle.

8. Meddle not with the people of Lyda, nor of Finda, because Wr-Alda would help them, and any injury that you inflicted on them would recoil upon your own heads.

9. If it should happen that they come to you for advice or assistance, then it behoves you to help them; but if they should rob you, then fall upon them with fire and sword.

10. If any of them should seek a daughter of yours to wife, and she is willing, explain to her her folly; but if she will follow her lover, let her go in peace.

11. If your son wishes for a daughter of theirs, do the same as to your daughter; but let not either one or the other ever return among you, for they would introduce foreign morals and customs, and if these were accepted by you, I could no longer watch over you.

12. Upon my femme Fasta I have placed all my hopes. Therefore you must choose her for folk-mother. Follow my advice, then she will hereafter remain my femme as well as all the sacred femmes who succeed her. Then shall the lamp which I have lighted for you never be extinguished. Its brightness shall always illuminate your intellect, and you shall always remain as free from foreign domination as your fresh river-water is distinct from the salt sea.

02 Chapter IV: This has Fasta spoken -

1. All the regulations which have existed a century, that is, a hundred years as measured by the carrier and the Yule, may by the advise of the folk-mother, with the consent of the community, be inscribed upon the walls of the burgh, and when inscribed on the walls they become laws, and it is our duty to respect them all.

2. If by force or necessity any regulations should be imposed upon us at variance with our laws and customs, we must always return to our own again. That is Frya's will, and must be that of all her children.

02 Chapter V: Fasta said -

1. Anything that any man commences, whatever it may be, on the day appointed for Frya's worship shall eternally fail, for time has proved that she was right.

2. It is become a law that no man shall, except from absolute necessity, keep that day otherwise than as a joyful feast.

02 Chapter VI: These are the laws established for the government of the burghs -

1. Whenever a burgh is built, the lamp belonging to it must be lighted at the original lamp in Texland, and that can only be done by the folk-mother.

2. Each folk-mother shall appoint her own femmes. The other burgh-femmes shall do the same as the folk-mother.

3. The folk-mother of Texland may appoint her own successor, but should she die without having done so, the election shall take place at a general assembly of the whole nation.

4. The folk-mother of Texland may have twenty-one femmes and seven apprentices, so that there may always be seven to attend the lamp day and night. The other burgh-femmes may have the same number as the folk-mother.

5. If a femme wishes to renounce her vow of celibacy, she must obtain the permission of the folk-mother, and immediately resign her office, before her passion shall have polluted the light.

6. For the service of the folk-mother and of each of the burgh-femmes there shall be appointed twenty-one burghers - seven elder wizards, seven elder warriors, and seven elder seamen.

7. Out of the seven three shall retire every year, and shall not be replaced by members of their own family nearer than the fourth degree.

8. Every burgh may have three hundred young warriors.

9. For this service they must study Frya's Tex and the laws. From the elder wizards they must learn wisdom, from the elder warriors the art of war, and from the elder seamen the skill required for distant voyages.

10. Every year one hundred of the warriors shall return to their homes, and those that may have been wounded shall remain in the burghs for the rest of their lives.

11. At the election of the warriors no burgher or reeve, or other person of distinction, shall vote, but only the people.

12. The folk-mother of Texland shall have three times seven active messengers, and three times twelve speedy horses. In the other burghs each burgh-femme shall have three messengers and seven horses.

13. Each and every burgh-femme shall have fifty farm-workers chosen by the people, but only those may be chosen who are not strong enough to go to war or to go to sea.

14. Every burgh must provide for its own sustenance, and must maintain its own defences, and look after its share of the general contributions.

15. If a man is chosen to fill any office and refuses to serve, he can never become a burgher, nor have any vote. And if he is already a burgher, he shall cease to be so.

16. If any man wishes to consult the folk-mother or a burgh-femme, he must apply to the scribe, who will take him to the burgomaster. He will then be examined by a healer to see if he is in good health. If he is passed, he shall lay aside his arms, and seven warriors shall present him to the folk-mother.

17. If the affair concerns only one state, he must bring forward not less than three witnesses; but if it affects the whole of Fryasland, he must have twenty-one additional witnesses, in order to guard against any deceptions.

18. Under all circumstances the folk-mother must take care that her children, that is, Frya's people, shall remain as peaceable as possible. This is her most important duty, and it is the duty of all of us to help her in performing it.

19. If she is called upon to decide any judicial question between a reeve and the community, she must incline towards the side of the community in order to maintain peace, and because it is better that one man should suffer than many.

20. If any one comes to the folk-mother for advice, and she is prepared to give it, she must do it immediately. If she does not know what to advise, he must remain waiting seven days; and if she then is unable to advise, he must go away without complaining, for it is better to have no advice at all than bad advice.

21. If a folk-mother shall have given bad advice out of illwill, she must be killed or driven out of the land, deprived of everything.

22. If her burghers are accomplices, they are to be treated in a similar manner.

23. If her guilt is doubtful or only suspected, it must be considered and debated, if necessary, for twenty-one weeks. If half the votes are against her, she must be declared innocent. If two-thirds are against her, she must wait a whole year. If the votes are then the same, she must be considered guilty, but may not be put to death.

24. If any of the one-third who have voted for her wish to go away with her, they may depart with all their live and dead stock, and shall not be the less considered, since the majority may be wrong as well as the minority.

02 Chapter VII: Universal law -

1. All Frya's Children are equal, wherefore they must all have equal rights on sea and land, and in all that Wr-Alda has given.

2. Every man may seek the wife of his choice, and each woman may bestow her hand on him whom she loves.

3. When a man takes a wife, a house and land must be given to him. If there is no house, one must be built for him.

4. If he has taken a wife in another village, and wishes to remain, they must give him a house and land there, and likewise the free use of the common.

5. To every man must be given a piece of land behind his house for his inheritance. No man shall have land in front of his house, still less a complete circuit, unless he has performed some public service. In such a case it may be given, and the youngest son may inherit it, but after him it returns to the community.

6. Each village shall possess a common for the general good, and the reeve shall take care that it is kept in good order, so that posterity shall find it uninjured.

7. Each village shall have a market-place. All the rest of the land shall be for tillage and forest. No one shall fell trees without the consent of the community, or without the knowledge of the forester; for the forests are general property, and no man can appropriate them.

8. The market charges shall not exceed one-twelfth of the value of the goods either to natives or strangers. The portion taken for the charges shall not be sold before the other goods.

9. All the market receipts must be divided yearly into a hundred parts three days before the Yule-day.

10. The reeve and his elders shall take twenty parts; the keeper of the market ten, and his assistants five; the folk-mother one, the burgh-femme four, the village ten, and the poor and infirm shall have fifty parts.

11. There shall be no usurers in the market. If any should come, it will be the duty of the femmes to make it known through the whole land, in order that such people may not be chosen for any office, because they are hard-hearted. For the sake of money they would betray everybody the people, the folk-mother, their nearest relations, and even their own selves.

12. If any man should attempt to sell diseased cattle or damaged goods for sound, the market-keeper shall expel him, and the femmes shall proclaim him through the country.

13. In early times almost all of Finda's people lived together in their mother-country, which like Aldland is now submerged. They were thus far away, and we had no wars. When they were driven hitherwards, and appeared as robbers, then arose the necessity of defending ourselves, and we had armies, kings, and wars.

14. For all this there were established regulations, and out of the regulations came fixed laws.

02 Chapter VIII: Here follow the laws which were thus established -

1. Each Child of Frya must resist the assailants with such weapons as he can procure, invent, and use.

2. When a boy is twelve years old he must devote one day in seven to learning how to use his weapons.

3. As soon as he is perfect in the use of them they are to be given to him, and he is to be admitted as a warrior.

4. After serving as a warrior three years, he may become a burgher, and may have a vote in the election of the state officials.

5. When he has been seven years a voter he then may have a vote for the commander or king, and may be himself elected.

6. Every year he must be re-elected.

7. Except the king, all other officials are re-eligible who act according to Frya's counsels.

8. No king may be in office more than three years, in order that the office may not be permanent.

9. After an interval of seven years he may be elected again.

10. If the king is killed by the enemy, his nearest relative may be a candidate to succeed him.

11. If he dies a natural death, or if his period of service has expired, he shall not be succeeded by any blood relative nearer than the fourth degree.

12. Those who fight with arms are not men of counsel, therefore no king must bear arms. His wisdom must be his weapon, and the love of his warriors his shield.

02 Chapter IX: These are the rights of the folk-mothers and the kings -

1. If war breaks out, the folk-mother sends her messengers to the king, who sends messengers to the reeves to call the warriors to arms.

2. The reeves call all the burghers together and decide how many men shall be sent.

3. All the resolutions must immediately be sent to the folk-mother by messengers and witnesses.

4. The folk-mother considers all the resolutions and decides upon them, and with this the king as well as the people must be satisfied.

5. When in the field, the king consults only his superior officers, but three burghers of the folk-mother must be present, without any voice. These burghers must send daily reports to the folk-mother, that they may be sure nothing is done contrary to law or to the counsels of Frya.

6. If the king wishes to do anything which his elders oppose, he may not persist in it.

7. If an enemy appears unexpectedly, then the king's orders must be obeyed.

8. If the king is not present, the next to him takes command, and so on in succession according to rank.

9. If there is no officer present, one must be elected.

10. If there is no time to choose, any one may come forward who feels himself capable of being an officer.

11. If a king has conquered a dangerous enemy, his successors may take his name after their own. The king may, if he wishes, choose an open piece of ground for a house and land; this land shall be a complete circuit, which may be so large that there shall be seven hundred steps to the boundary in all directions from the house.

12. His youngest son may inherit this, and that son's youngest son after him; then it shall return to the community.

02 Chapter X: Here are the rules established for the security of all the Children of Frya -

1. Whenever new laws are made or new regulations established, they must be for the common good, and not for individual advantage.

2. Whenever in time of war either houses or ships are destroyed, either by the enemy or as a matter of precaution, a general levy shall be assessed on the people to make it good again, so that no one may neglect the general welfare to preserve his own interest.

3. At the conclusion of a war, if any men are so severely wounded as to be unable to work, they shall be maintained at the public expense, and shall have the best seats at festivals, in order that the young may learn to honour them.

4. If there are widows and orphans, they shall likewise be maintained at the public expense; and the sons may inscribe the names of their fathers on their shields for the honour of their families.

5. If any who have been taken prisoners should return, they must be kept separate from the dwellings, because they may have obtained their liberty by making treacherous promises, and thus they may avoid keeping their promises without forfeiting their honour.

6. If any enemies be taken prisoners, they must be sent to the interior of the country, that they may learn our free customs.

7. If they are afterwards set free, it must be done with kindness by the femmes, in order that we may make them comrades and friends, instead of haters and enemies.

02 Chapter XI: From Minno's writings -

1. If any one should be so wicked as to commit robbery, murder, arson, rape, or any other crime, upon a neighbouring state, and our people wish to inflict punishment, the culprit shall be put to death in the presence of the offended, in order that no war may arise, and the innocent suffer for the guilty.

2. If the offended will spare his life and forego their revenge, it may be permitted. If the culprit should be a king, reeve, or other state official, we must make good his fault, but he must be punished.

3. If he bears on his shield the honourable name of his forefathers, his kinsmen shall no longer wear it, in order that every man may look after the conduct of his relatives.

02 Chapter XII: Laws for the navigators; navigator is the title of those who make foreign voyages -

1. All Frya's sons have equal rights, and every stalwart youth may offer himself as a navigator to the alderman, who may not refuse him as long as there is any vacancy.

2. The navigators may choose their own masters.

3. The traders must be chosen and named by the community to which they belong, and the navigators have no voice in their election.

4. If during a voyage it is found that the sea king is bad or incompetent, another may be put in his place, and on the return home he may make his complaint to the alderman.

5. If the fleet returns with profits, the navigators may divide one-third among themselves in the following manner: The sea king twelve portions, the admiral seven, the boatswains each two portions, the captains three, and the rest of the crew each one portion; the youngest apprentices each one-third of a portion, the middle apprentices half a portion each, and the eldest apprentices two-thirds of a portion each.

6. If any have been disabled, they must be maintained at the public expense, and honoured in the same way as the warriors.

7. If any have died on the voyage, their nearest relatives inherit their portion.

8. Their widows and orphans must be maintained at the public expense; and if they were killed in a sea fight, their sons may bear the names of their fathers on their shields.

9. If an apprentice is lost, his heirs shall receive a whole portion.

10. If he was betrothed, his bride may claim seven portions in order to erect a monument to her bridegroom, but then she must remain a widow all her life.

11. If the community is fitting out a fleet, the purveyors must provide the best provisions for the voyage, and for the women and children.

12. If a navigator is worn out and poor, and has no house or land, it must be given him. If he does not wish for a house, his friends may take him home; and the community must bear the expense, unless his friends decline to receive it.

02 Chapter XIII: Useful extracts from the writings left by Minno -

1. Minno was an ancient sea king. He was a seer and a wizard, and he gave laws to the Kretar. He was born at Lindawrda, and after all his wanderings he had the happiness to die at Lindahem.

2. If our neighbours have a piece of land or water which it would be advantageous for us to possess, it is proper that we should offer to buy it. If they refuse to sell it, we must let them keep it. This is Frya's Tex, and it would be unjust to act contrary to it.

3. If any of our neighbours quarrel and fight about any matter except land, and they request us to arbitrate, our best course will be to decline; but if they insist upon it, it must be done honourably and justly.

4. If any one comes and says, "I am at war, you must help me."

5. Or another comes and says, "My son is an infant and incompetent, and I am old, so I wish you to be his guardian, and take charge of my property until he is of age."

6. It is proper to refuse in order that we may not come into disputes about matters foreign to our free customs.

7. Whenever a foreign trader comes to the open markets at Wyringga and Almanland, if he cheats, he must immediately be fined, and it must be published by the femmes throughout the whole land.

8. If he should come back, no one must deal with him. He must return as he came.

9. Whenever traders are chosen to go to trading stations, or to sail with the fleets, they must be well known and of good reputation with the femmes.

10. If, however, a bad man should by chance be chosen and should try to cheat, the others are bound to remove him. If he should have committed a cheat, it must be made good, and the culprit must be banished from the land in order that our name may be everywhere held in honour.

11. If we should be ill-treated in a foreign market, whether distant or near, we must immediately attack them; for though we desire to be at peace, we must not let our neighbours underrate us or think that we are afraid.

12. In my youth I often grumbled at the strictness of the laws, but afterwards I learned to thank Frya for her Tex and our forefathers for the laws which they established upon it. Wr-Alda or Alfeder has given me many years, and I have travelled over many lands and seas, and after all that I have seen, I am convinced that we alone are chosen by Alfeder to have laws.

13. Lyda's people can neither make laws nor obey them, they are too stupid and uncivilised. Many are like Finda. They are clever enough, but they are too rapacious, haughty, false, immoral, and bloodthirsty.

14. The toad blows himself out, but he can only crawl. The frog cries, "Work! Work!" but he can do nothing but hop and make himself ridiculous. The raven cries, "Spare! Spare!" but he steals and wastes everything that he gets into his beak.

15. Finda's people are just like these. They say a great deal about making good laws, and every one wishes to make regulations against misconduct, but does not wish to submit to them himself. Whoever is the most crafty crows over the others, and tries to make them submit to him, till another comes who drives him off his perch.

16. The word "Ewa" is too sacred for common use, therefore men have learned to say, "Evin".

17. "Ewa" means that sentiment which is implanted in the breast of every man in order that he may know what is right and what is wrong, and by which he is able to judge his own deeds and those of others; that is, if he has been well and properly brought up. "Ewa" has also another meaning; that is, tranquil, smooth, like water that is not stirred by a breath of wind. If the water is disturbed it becomes troubled, uneven, but it always has a tendency to return to its tranquil condition.

18. That is its nature, just as the inclination towards justice and freedom exists in Frya's Children. We derive this disposition from the spirit of Wr-Alda, our provider, which speaks strongly in Frya's Children, and will eternally remain so. "Ewa" is another symbol of Wr-Alda, who remains always just and unchangeable.

19. "Ewa", eternal and unalterable, the sign of wisdom and rectitude, must be sought after by all pious people, and must be possessed by all judges. If, therefore, it is desired to make laws and regulations which shall be permanent, they must be equal for all men. The judges must pronounce their decisions according to these laws.

20. If any crime is committed respecting which no law has been made, a general assembly of the people shall be called, where judgment shall be pronounced in accordance with the inspiration of Wr-Alda's spirit. If we act thus, our judgment will never fail to be right.

21. If instead of doing right, men will commit wrong, there will arise quarrels and differences among people and states. Thence arise civil wars, and everything is thrown into confusion and destroyed; and O foolish people! while you are injuring each other the spiteful Finda's people with their false priests come and attack your ports, ravish your daughters, corrupt your morals, and at last throw the bonds of slavery over the neck of every Child of Frya.

02 Chapter XIV: From Minno's writings -

1. When Nyhellenia, whose real name was Minerva, was well established, and the Krekalandar loved her as well as our own people did, there came some princes and priests to her burgh and asked Minerva where her possessions lay.

2. Nyhellenia answered, "I carry my possessions in my own bosom. What I have inherited is the love of wisdom, justice, and freedom. If I lose these I shall become as the least of your slaves; now I give advice for nothing, but then I should sell it."

3. The gentlemen went away laughing, and saying, "Your humble servants, wise Hellenia."

4. But they missed their object, for the people took up this name as a name of honour. When they saw that their shot had missed they began to calumniate her, and to say that she had bewitched the people; but our people and the good Krekalandar understood at once that it was calumny.

5. She was once asked, "If you are not a witch, what is the use of the eggs that you always carry with you?"

6. Minerva answered, "These eggs are the symbols of Frya's counsels, in which our future and that of the whole human race lies concealed. Time will hatch them, and we must watch that no harm happens to them."

7. The priests said, "Well answered; but what is the use of the dog on your right hand?"

8. Hellenia replied, "Does not the shepherd have a sheep-dog to keep his flock together? What the dog is to the shepherd I am in Frya's service. I must watch over Frya's flocks."

9. The priests said, "We understand that very well; but tell us what means the owl that always sits upon your head, is that light-shunning animal a sign of your clear vision?"

10. Hellenia answered, "No; he reminds me that there are people on Irtha who, like him, have their homes in temples and holes, who go about in the twilight, not, like him, to deliver us from mice and other plagues, but to invent tricks to steal away the knowledge of other people, in order to take advantage of them, to make slaves of them, and to suck their blood in imitation of vampires."

11. Another time they came with a whole troop of people, when the plague was in the country, and said, "We are all making offerings to the gods that they may take away the plague. Will you not help to turn away their anger, or have you yourself brought the plague into the land with all your arts?"

12. Minerva said, "No; I know no gods that do evil, therefore I cannot ask them to do better. I only know of one good spirit, that is Wr-Alda's; and as he is good he never does evil."

13. The priests asked, "Where, then, does evil come from? All the evil comes from you, and from the stupidity of the people who let themselves be deceived by you. If, then, your god is so exceedingly good, why does he not turn away the bad?"

14. Hellenia answered, "Frya has placed us here, and the carrier, that is, time, must do the rest. For all calamities there is counsel and remedy to be found, but Wr-Alda wills that we should search it out ourselves, in order that we may become strong and wise. If we will not do that, he leaves us to our own devices, in order that we may experience the results of wise or foolish conduct."

15. Then a prince said, "I should think it best to submit."

16. Hellenia answered, "Very possibly; for then men would be like sheep, and you and the priests would take care of them, shearing them and leading them to the shambles. That is what our god does not desire, he desires that we should help one another, but that all should be free and wise. That is also our desire, and therefore our people choose their princes, reeves, elders, leaders, and masters from among the wisest of the good men, in order that every man shall do his best to be wise and good. Thus doing, we learn ourselves and teach the people that being wise and acting wisely can alone lead to holiness."

17. The priests said, "That seems very good judgment; but if you mean that the plague is caused by our stupidity, then Nyhellenia will perhaps be so good as to bestow upon us a little of that new light of which she is so proud."

18. Hellenia said, "Yes, but ravens and other birds of prey feed only on dead carrion, whereas the plague feeds not only on carrion but on bad laws and customs and wicked passions. If you wish the plague to depart from you and not return, you must put away your bad passions and become pure within and without."

19. The priests said, "We admit that the advice is good, but how shall we induce all the people under our rule to agree to it?"

20. Then Hellenia stood up and said, "The sparrows follow the sower, and the people their good princes, therefore it becomes you to begin by rendering yourselves pure, so that you may look within and without, and not be ashamed of your own conduct. Now, instead of purifying the people, you have invented foul festivals, in which they have so long revelled that they wallow like swine in the mire to atone for your evil passions."

21. The people began to mock and to jeer, so that she did not dare to pursue the subject; and one would have thought that they would have called all the people together to drive us out of the land; but no, in place of abusing her they went all about from Heinde Krekaland to the Alpa, proclaiming that it had pleased the great god to send his clever daughter Minerva, surnamed Nyhellenia, over the sea in a cloud to give people good counsel, and that all who listened to her should become rich and happy, and in the end governors of all the kingdoms of Irtha.

22. They erected statues to her on all their altars, they announced and sold to the simple people advice that she had never given, and related miracles that she had never performed. They cunningly made themselves masters of our laws and customs, and by craft and subtlety were able to explain and spread them around.

23. They appointed femmes under their own care, who were apparently under the protection of Fasta, our first folk-mother, to watch over the holy lamp; but that lamp they lit themselves, and instead of imbuing the femmes with wisdom, and then sending them to watch the sick and educate the young, they made them stupid and ignorant, and never allowed them to come out. They were employed as advisors, but the advice which seemed to come from them was but the repetition of the behests of the priests.

24. When Nyhellenia died, we wished to choose another burgh-femme, and some of us wished to go to Texland to look for her; but the priests, who were all-powerful among their own people, would not permit it, and accused us before the people of being unholy.

02 Chapter XV: From Minno's writings -

1. When I came away from Athenia with my followers, we arrived at an island named by my crew Kreta, because of the cries that the inhabitants raised on our arrival. When they really saw that we did not come to make war, they were quiet, so that at last I was able to buy a harbour in exchange for a boat and some silver implements, and a piece of land.

2. When we had been settled there a short time, and they discovered that we had no slaves, they were very much astonished; and when I explained to them that we had laws which made everybody equal, they wished to have the same; but they had hardly established them before the whole land was in confusion.

3. The priests and princes declared that we had excited their subjects to rebellion, and the people appealed to us for aid and protection. When the princes saw that they were about to lose their kingdom, they gave freedom to their people, and came to me to establish a code of laws. The people, however, got no freedom, and the princes remained masters, acting according to their own pleasure.

4. When this storm had passed, they began to sow divisions among us. They told my people that I had invoked their assistance to make myself permanent king. Once I found poison in my food. So when a ship from Flyland sailed past, I quietly took my departure.

5. Leaving alone, then, my own adventures, I will conclude this history by saying that we must not have anything to do with Finda's people, wherever it may be, because they are full of false tricks, fully as much to be feared as their sweet wine with deadly poison.

6. Here ends Minno's writings.

02 Chapter XVI: These are the three principles on which the following laws are established -

1. Everybody knows that he requires the necessaries of life, and if he cannot obtain them he does not know how to preserve his life.

2. All men have a natural desire to marry, and if it is not satisfied they are not aware what evil may spring from it.

3. Every man knows that he wishes to live free and undisturbed, and that others wish the same thing.

02 Chapter XVII: To secure this, these laws and regulations are made -

1. The people of Finda have also their rules and regulations, but these are not made according to what is just - only for the advantage of priests and princes - therefore their states are full of disputes and murder. If any Child of Frya falls into a state of destitution, his case must be brought before the reeve by the femmes, because a high-minded Child of Frya cannot bear to do that himself.

2. If any man becomes poor because he will not work, he must be sent out of the land, because the cowardly and lazy are troublesome and ill-disposed, therefore they ought to be got rid of.

3. Every young man ought to seek a bride and to be married at five-and-twenty.

4. If a young man is not married at five-and-twenty, he must be driven from his home, and the younger men must avoid him. If then he will not marry, he must be declared dead, and leave the country, so that he may not give offence.

5. If a man is impotent, he must openly declare that no one has anything to fear from him, then he may come or go where he likes.

6. If after that he commits any carnal act, then he must flee away; if he does not, he may be given over to the vengeance of those whom he has offended, and no one may aid him.

7. Any one who commits a theft shall restore it three-fold. For a second offence he shall be sent to the tin mines. The person robbed may forgive him if he pleases, but for a third offence no one shall protect him.

02 Chapter XVIII: These rules are made for angry people -

1. If a man in a passion or out of illwill breaks another's limb or puts out an eye or a tooth, he must pay whatever the injured man demands. If he cannot pay, he must suffer the same injury as he has done to the other. If he refuses this, he must appeal to the burgh-femme in order to be sent to work in the silver or tin mines until he has expiated his crime under the general law.

2. If a man is so wicked as to kill a Child of Frya, he must forfeit his own life; but if the burgh-femme can send him to the tin mines for his life before he is taken, she may do so.

3. If the prisoner can prove by proper witnesses that the death was accidental, he may go free; but if it happens a second time, he must go to the tin mines, in order to avoid any unseemly hatred or vengeance.

02 Chapter XIX: These are the rules concerning bastards -

1. If any man sets fire to another's house, he is no Child of Frya, he is a bastard. If he is caught in the act, he must be thrown into the fire; and wherever he may flee, he shall never be secure from the avenging justice.

2. No true Child of Frya shall speak ill of the faults of his neighbours. If any man injures himself, but does no harm to others, he must be his own judge; but if he becomes so bad that he is dangerous to others, they must bring it before the reeve. But if instead of going to the reeve a man accuses another behind his back, he must be put on the pillory in the market-place, and then sent out of the land, but not to the tin mines, because even there a backbiter is to be feared.

3. If any man should prove a traitor and show our enemies the paths leading to our places of refuge, or creep into them by night, he must be the offspring of Finda; he must be burnt. The navigators must take his mother and all his relations to a desolate island, and there scatter his ashes, in order that no poisonous herbs may spring from them. The femmes must curse his name in all the states, in order that no child may be called by his name, and that his ancestors may repudiate him.

4. War had come to an end, but famine came in its place. There were three men who each stole a sack of corn from different owners, but they were all caught.

5. The first owner brought his thief to the judge, and the femmes said everywhere that he had done right.

6. The second owner took the corn away from his thief and let him go in peace. The femmes said he had done well.

7. The third owner went to the thief's house, and when he saw what misery was there, he went and brought a waggon-load of necessaries to relieve their distress. Frya's femmes came around him and wrote his deed in the eternal book, and wiped out all his guilt. This was reported to the folk-mother, and she had it made known over the whole land.

02 Chapter XX: What is written hereunder is inscribed on the walls of Waraburch -


1. What appears at the top is the signs of the Yule - that is, the first symbol of Wr-Alda: the Origin and the Beginning; from which time is derived. This is the carrier, which must always go round with the Yule. According to this model Frya formed the set hand which she used to write her Tex. When Fasta was folk-mother she made a running hand out of it.

2. The wit-king, that is, sea king Godfreiath the Elder, made separate numbers for the set hand and for the running hand. It is therefore not too much that we celebrate it once a year. We may be eternally thankful to Wr-Alda that he allowed his spirit to exercise such an influence over our forefathers.

3. In her time Finda also invented a mode of writing, but that was so high-flown and full of flourishes that her descendants have soon lost the meaning of it.

4. Afterwards they learned our writing - that is, the Finnar, the Thyriar, and the Krekalandar - but they did not know that it was taken from the Yule, and must therefore always be written round like the sun.

5. Furthermore, they wished that their writing should be illegible by other people, because they always had matters to conceal. In doing this they acted very unwisely, because their children could only with great difficulty read the writings of their predecessors, whereas our most ancient writings are as easy to read as those that were written yesterday.

6. Here is a specimen of the set hand and of the running hand, as well as of the figures, in both:


02 Chapter XXI: This stands inscribed upon all burghs -

1. Before the bad time came our land was the most beautiful in the World. The sun rose higher, and there was seldom frost. The trees and shrubs produced various fruits, which are now lost. In the fields we had not only barley, oats, and rye, but wheat which shone like gold, and which could be baked in the sun's rays. The years were not counted, for one was as happy as another.

2. On one side we were bounded by Wr-Alda's Sea, on which no one but us might or could sail; on the other side we were hedged in by the broad Twiskland, through which Finda's people dared not come on account of the thick forests and the wild beasts.

3. Eastward our boundary went to the extremity of the Aster Sea, and westwards to the Middel Sea; so that besides the small rivers we had twelve large rivers given us by Wr-Alda to keep our land moist, and to show our seafaring men the way to his sea.

4. The banks of these rivers were at one time entirely inhabited by our people, as well as the banks of the Rene from one end to the other.

5. Opposite Denamark and Juttarland we had colonies and a burgh-femme. Thence we obtained copper and silver, as well as tar and pitch, and some other necessaries.

6. Opposite to us we had Brittania, formerly Westland, with her tin mines.

7. Brittania was the land of the exiles, who with the help of their burgh-femme had gone away to save their lives; but in order that they might not come back they were tattooed with a "B" on the forehead, the banished with a red dye, the other criminals with blue.

8. Moreover, our navigators and merchants had many factories among the Heinde Krekalandar and in Lydia. In Lydia the people are black.

9. As our country was so great and extensive, we had many different names. Those who were settled to the east of Denamark were called Juttar, because often they did nothing else than look for amber on the shore. Those who lived in the islands were called Letne, because they lived an isolated life.

10. All those who lived between Denamark and the Sandfal, now the Skelda, were called Stiurar, Sekampar, and Angelarar. The Angelarar were men who fished in the sea, and were so named because they used lines and hooks instead of nets.

11. From there to Heinde Krekaland the inhabitants were called Kadhemar, because they never went to sea but remained ashore.

12. Those who were settled in the higher marches bounded by Twiskland were called Saxmannar, because they were always armed against the wild beasts and the savage Britne.

13. Besides these we had the names Landsaton, Marsatar, and Holt- or Wodsatar.

02 Chapter XXII: How the bad time came -

1. During the whole summer the sun had been hidden behind the clouds, as if unwilling to look upon Irtha. There was perpetual calm, and the damp mist hung like a wet sail over the houses and marshes. The air was heavy and oppressive, and in men's hearts was neither joy nor cheerfulness.

2. In the midst of this stillness Irtha began to tremble as if she was dying. The mountains opened to vomit forth fire and flames. Some sank into the bosom of Irtha, and in other places mountains rose out of the plain. Aldland, called Atland by the navigators, disappeared, and the wild waves rose so high over hill and dale that everything was buried in the sea. Many people were swallowed up by Irtha, and others who had escaped the fire perished in the water.

3. It was also in Finda's land that Irtha vomited fire, and in Twiskland. Whole forests were burned one after the other, and when the wind blew from that quarter our land was covered with ashes. Rivers changed their course, and at their mouths new islands were formed of sand and drift.

4. During three years this continued, but at length it ceased, and forests became visible. Many countries were submerged, and in other places land rose above the sea, and the wood was destroyed through the half of Twiskland. Troops of Finda's people came and settled in the empty places. Our dispersed people were exterminated or made slaves. Then watchfulness was doubly impressed upon us, and time taught us that union is force.

02 Chapter XXIII: This was inscribed on the Waraburch by the Aldergamude -


1., The Waraburch is not a femme's burgh, but the place where all the foreign articles brought by navigators were stored. It lies three hours south from Medeasblik.

2. Thus is the preface:

3. Hills, bow your heads; weep, ye streams and clouds. Yes. Skenland blushes, an enslaved people tramples on your short kilt, O Frya.

4. This is the history:

5. In the year 101 after the submersion of Aldland a people came out of the east. That people was driven by another. Behind us, in Twiskland, they fell into disputes, divided into two parties, and each went its own way. Of the one no account has come to us, but the other came in the back of our Skenland, which was thinly inhabited, particularly the upper part. Therefore they were able to take possession of it without contest, and as they did no other harm, we would not make war about it.

6. Now that we have learned to know them, we will describe their customs, and after that how matters went between us. They were not wild people, like most of Finda's race; but, like the Egiptalandar, they have priests and also statues in their temples. The priests are the only rulers; they call themselves Magyarar, and their leader Magy. He is high priest and king in one. The rest of the people are of no account, and in subjection to them.

7. This people have not even a name; but we call them Finnar, because although all the festivals are melancholy and bloody, they are so formal that we are inferior to them in that respect. But still they are not to be envied, because they are slaves to their priests, and still more to their creeds.

8. They believe that evil spirits abound everywhere, and enter into men and beasts, but of Wr-Alda's spirit they know nothing. They have weapons of stone, the Magyarar of copper. The Magyarar affirm that they can exorcise and recall the evil spirits, and this frightens the people, so that you never see a cheerful face.

9. When they were well established, the Magyarar sought our friendship, they praised our language and customs, our cattle and silver weapons, which they would willingly have exchanged for their gold and silver ornaments, and they always kept their people within their own boundaries, and that outwitted our watchfulness.

10. Eighty years afterwards, just at the time of the Yule-feast, they overran our country like a snowstorm driven by the wind. All who could not flee away were killed. Frya was appealed to, but the Skenlandar had neglected her advice. Then all the forces were assembled, and three hours from Godahisburch they were withstood, but war continued.

11. Kat or Katerinne was the name of the burgh-femme of Godahisburch. Kat was proud and haughty, and would neither seek counsel nor aid from the folk-mother; but when the burghers knew this, they themselves sent messengers to Texland to the folk-mother. Minna - this was the name of the folk-mother - summoned all the navigators and the young men from Astflyland and Denamark.

12. From this expedition the history of Wodin sprang, which is inscribed on the burghs, and is here copied:

13. At Aldergamude there lived an old sea king whose name was Sterik, and whose deeds were famous. This old fellow had three nephews. Wodin, the eldest, lived at Lumkamakia, near the Emude, in Astflyland, with his parents. He had once commanded troops. Tunis and Inka were naval warriors, and were just then staying with their father at Aldergamude.

14. When the young warriors had assembled together, they chose Wodin to be their commander or king, and the naval force chose Tunis for their sea king and Inka for their admiral. The navigators then sailed for Denamark, where they took on board Wodin and his valiant host.

15. The wind was fair, so they arrived immediately in Skenland. When the northern brothers met together, Wodin divided his powerful army into three bodies. "Frya" was their war-cry, and they drove back the Finnar and Magyarar like children.

16. When the Magy heard how his forces had been utterly defeated, he sent messengers with truncheon and crown, who said to Wodin:

17. "O almighty king, we are guilty, but all that we have done was done from necessity. You think that we attacked your brothers out of illwill, but we were driven out by our enemies, who are still at our heels. We have often asked your burgh-femme for help, but she took no notice of us.

18. "The Magy says that if we kill half our numbers in fighting with each other, then the wild shepherds will come and kill all the rest. The Magy possesses great riches, but he has seen that Frya is much more powerful than all our spirits together. He will lay down his head in her lap.

19. "You are the most warlike king on Irtha, and your people are of silver. Become our king, and we will all be your slaves. What glory it would be for you if you could drive back the savages! Our trumpets would resound with your praises, and the fame of your deeds would precede you everywhere."

20. Wodin was strong, fierce, and warlike, but he was not clear-sighted, therefore he was taken in their toils, and crowned by the Magy.

21. Very many of the navigators and soldiers to whom this proceeding was displeasing went away secretly, taking Kat with them. But Kat, who did not wish to appear before either the folk-mother or the general assembly, jumped overboard. Then a storm arose and drove the ships upon the banks of Denamark, with the total destruction of their crews. This strait was afterwards called the Katsgat.

22. When Wodin was crowned, he attacked the savages, who were all horsemen, and fell upon Wodin's troops like a hailstorm; but like a whirlwind they were turned back, and did not dare to appear again.

23. When Wodin returned, Magy gave him his daughter to wife. Whereupon he was incensed with herbs; but they were magic herbs, and by degrees he became so audacious that he dared to disavow and ridicule the spirits of Frya and Wr-Alda, while he bent his free head before the false and deceitful images. His reign lasted seven years, and then he disappeared. The Magy said that he was taken up by their gods and still reigned over us, but our people laughed at what they said.

24. When Wodin had disappeared some time, disputes arose. We wished to choose another king, but the Magy would not permit it. He asserted that it was his right given him by his idols. But besides this dispute there was one between the Magyarar and Finnar, who would honour neither Frya nor Wodin; but the Magy did just as he pleased, because his daughter had a son by Wodin, and he would have it that this son was of high descent.

25. While all were disputing and quarrelling, he crowned the boy as king, and set up himself as guardian and counsellor. Those who cared more for themselves than for justice let him work his own way, but the good men took their departure. Many Magyarar fled back with their troops, and the sea-people took ship, accompanied by a body of stalwart Finnar as rowers.

26. Next comes upon the stage the history of Nef Tunis and Nef Inka.

02 Chapter XXIV: All this is inscribed not only on the Waraburch, but also on the burgh Stavia, which lies behind the port of Staveren -

1. When Tunis wished to return home, he went first towards Denamark; but he might not land there, for so the folk-mother had ordered, nor was he to land at Flyland nor anywhere about there. In this way he would have lost all his people by want and hardship, so he landed at night to steal and sailed by day. Thus coasting along, he at length arrived at the colony of Kadik, so called because it was built with a stone quay.

2. Here they bought all kinds of stores, but Tutia the burgh-femme would not allow them to settle there. When they were ready they began to disagree. Tunis wished to sail through the straits to the Middel Sea, and enter the service of the rich king of Egiptaland, as he had done before, but Inka said he had had enough of all those Finda's people. Inka thought that perchance some high-lying part of Atland might remain as an island, where he and his people might live in peace.

3. As the two brothers could not agree, Tunis planted a red flag on the shore, and Inka a blue flag. Every man could choose which he pleased, and to their astonishment the greater part of the Finnar and Magyarar followed Inka, who had objected to serve the kings of Finda's people. When they had counted the people and divided the ships accordingly, the fleet separated. We shall hear of Tunis afterwards, but nothing more of Inka.

4. Nef Tunis coasted through the straits to the Middel Sea. When Atland was submerged there was much suffering also on the shores of the Middel Sea, on which account many of Finda's people, Heinde and Fere Krekalandar, and people from Lyda's land, came to us. On the other hand, many of our people went to Lyda's land. The result of all this was that the Heinde and Fere Krekalandar were lost to the superintendence of the folk-mother.

5. Tunis had reckoned on this, and had therefore wished to find there a good haven from which he might go and serve under the rich princes; but as his fleet and his people had such a shattered appearance, the inhabitants on the coasts thought that they were pirates, and drove them away.

6. At last they arrived at the Phonisiar coast, in the year 193 after Atland was submerged.

7. Near the coast they found an island with two deep bays, so that there appeared to be three islands. In the middle one they established themselves, and afterwards built a burgh wall round the place. Then they wanted to give it a name, but disagreed about it. Some wanted to call it Fryasburch, others Neftunia; but the Magyarar and Finnar begged that it might be called Thyrhisburch.

8. Thyr was the name of one of their idols, and it was upon his feast-day that they had landed there; and in return they offered to recognise Tunis as their perpetual king. Tunis let himself be persuaded, and the others would not make any quarrel about it.

9. When they were well established, they sent some senior navigators and Magyarar on an expedition as far as the burgh of Sydon; but at first the inhabitants of the coast would have nothing to do with them, saying:

10. "You are only foreign adventurers whom we do not respect."

11. But when we sold them some of our silver weapons, everything went well. They also wished to buy our amber, and their inquiries about it were incessant. But Tunis, who was far-seeing, pretended that he had no more weapons or amber.

12. Then merchants came and begged him to let them have twenty vessels, which they would freight with the finest goods, and they would provide as many people to row as he would require. Twelve ships were laden with wine, honey, tanned leather, and saddles and bridles mounted in gold, such as had never been seen before.

13. Tunis sailed to the Flymar with all this treasure, which so enchanted the reeve of Westflyland that he induced Tunis to build a warehouse at the mouth of the Flymar. Afterwards this place was called Almanland, and the market where they traded at Wyringga was called Toletmark.

14. The folk-mother advised that they should sell everything except silver weapons, but no attention was paid to what she said. As the Thyriar had thus free play, they came from far and near to take away our goods, to the loss of our seafaring people. Therefore it was resolved in a general assembly to allow only seven Thyrier ships and no more in a year.

02 Chapter XXV: What the consequence of this was -

1. In the northernmost part of the Middel Sea there lies an island close to the coast. They now came and asked to buy that, on which a general assembly was held.

2. The folk-mother's advice was asked, and she wished to see them at some distance, so she saw no harm in it; but as we afterwards saw what a mistake we had made, we called the island Missellia. Hereafter will be seen what reason we had.

3. The Golar, as the missionary priests of Sydon were called, had observed that the land there was thinly peopled, and was far from the folk-mother. In order to make a favourable impression, they had themselves called in our language "Truth Followers"; but they had better have been called "Truth Shunners", or, in short, Trowydar, as our navigators afterwards called them.

4. When they were well established, their merchants exchanged their beautiful copper weapons and all sorts of jewels for our silver weapons and hides of wild beasts, which were abundant in our southern countries; but the Golar celebrated all sorts of vile and monstrous festivals, which the inhabitants of the coast promoted with their wanton women and sweet poisonous wine.

5. If any of our people had so conducted himself that his life was in danger, the Golar afforded him a refuge, and sent him to Phonisia, that is, Palmland. When he was settled there, they made him write to his family, friends, and connections that the country was so good and the people so happy that no one could form any idea of it.

6. In Brittania there were plenty of men, but few women. When the Golar knew this, they carried off girls everywhere and gave them to the Britne for nothing. So all these girls served their purpose to steal children from Wr-Alda in order to give them to false gods.

02 Chapter XXVI: Now we will write about the war between the burgh-femmes Kalta and Minerva -


1. And how we thereby lost all our southern lands and Brittania to the Golar.

2. Near the mouth of the Suder Hrenum and the Skelda there are the Siugon Elanda, named after Frya's seven watch-femmes of the week. In the middle of one island is the burgh of Walhallagara, and on the walls of this burgh the following history is inscribed.

3. Above it are the words, "Read, Learn, and Watch!"

4. In the year 563 after the submersion of Aldland a wise burgh-femme presided here, whose name was Minerva - called by the navigators Nyhellenia. This name was well chosen, for her counsels were new and clear above all others.

5. On the other side of the Skelda, at Flyburch, Syrhed presided. This femme was full of tricks. Her face was beautiful, and her tongue was nimble; but the advice that she gave was always conveyed in mysterious terms. Therefore the navigators called her Kalta, and the land-dwellers thought it was a title.

6. In the last will of the dead folk-mother, Rosamond was named first, Minerva second, and Syrhed third in succession. Minerva did not mind that, but Syrhed was very much offended. Like a foreign princess, she wished to be honoured, feared, and worshipped; but Minerva only desired to be loved. At last all the navigators, even from Denamark and Flymar, did homage to her. This hurt Syrhed, because she wanted to excel Minerva.

7. In order to give an impression of her great watchfulness, she had a cock put on her banner. So then Minerva went and put a sheep-dog and an owl on her banner. The dog, she said, guards his master and his flock, and the owl watches that the mice shall not devastate the fields; but the cock in his lewdness and his pride is only fit to murder his nearest relations. When Kalta found that her scheme had failed she was still more vexed, so she secretly sent for the Magyarar to teach her sorcery.

8. When she had had enough of this she threw herself into the hands of the Golar; but all her malpractices did not improve her position. When she saw that the navigators kept more and more aloof from her, she tried to win them back by fear. At the full moon, when the sea was stormy, she ran over the wild waves, calling to the navigators that they would all be lost if they did not worship her. Then she blinded their eyes, so that they mistook land for water and water for land, and in this way many a good ship was totally lost.

9. At the first war-feast, when all her countrymen were armed, she brought casks of beer, which she had drugged. When they were all drunk she mounted her war-horse, leaning her head upon her spear. Sunrise could not be more beautiful. When she saw that the eyes of all were fixed upon her, she opened her lips and said:

10. "Sons and daughters of Frya, you know that in these last times we have suffered much loss and misery because the navigators no longer come to buy our paper, but you do not know what the reason of it is. I have kept silence about it, but can do so no longer.

11. "Listen, then, my friends, that you may know on which side to show your teeth. On the other side of the Skelda, where from time to time there come ships from all parts, they make now paper from pumpkin leaves, by which they save flax and outdo us.

12. "Now, as the making of paper was always our principal industry, the folk-mother willed that people should learn it from us; but Minerva has bewitched all the people - yes, bewitched, my friends - as well as all our cattle that died lately. I must come out with it. If I were not burgh-femme, I should know what to do. I should burn the witch in her nest."

13. As soon as she had uttered these words she sped away to her burgh; but the drunken people were so excited that they did not stop to weigh what they had heard. In mad haste they hurried over the Sandfal, and as night came on they burst into the burgh. However, Kalta again missed her aim; for Minerva, her femmes, and her lamp were all saved by the alertness of the navigators.

02 Chapter XXVII: We now come to the history of Jon -


1. Jon, Jhon, Jan, are all the same name, though the pronunciation varies, as the navigators like to shorten everything to be able to make it easier to call. Jon - that is, "Given" - was a sea king, born at Alderga, who sailed from the Flymar with a fleet of one hundred and twenty-seven ships fitted out for a long voyage, and laden with amber, tin, copper, cloth, linen, felt, otter-skins, beaver and rabbit skins.

2. He would also have taken paper from here, but when he saw how Kalta had destroyed the burgh he became so angry that he went off with all his people to Flyburch, and out of revenge set fire to it. His admiral and some of his people saved the lamp and the femmes, but they could not catch Syrhed, or Kalta. She climbed up on the furthest battlement, and they thought she must be killed in the flames; but what happened?

3. While all her people stood transfixed with horror, she appeared upon her steed more beautiful than ever, calling to them, "To Kalta!"

4. Then the other Skelda people poured out towards her. When the navigators saw that, they shouted, "We are for Minerva!"

5. From this arose a war in which thousands were killed.

6. At this time Rosamond, that is Rosamuda, the folk-mother, who had done all in her power by gentle means to preserve peace, when she saw how bad it was, made short work of it. Immediately she sent messengers throughout all the districts to call a general levy, which brought together all the warriors of the country. The landsmen who were fighting were all caught, but Jon with his navigators took refuge on board his fleet, taking with him the two lamps, as well as Minerva and the femmes of both the burghs.

7. Helprik, the commander, summoned him to appear; but while all the soldiers were on the other side of the Skelda, Jon sailed back to the Flymar, and then straight to our islands. His fighting men and many of our people took women and children on board, and when Jon saw that he and his people would be punished for their misdeeds, he secretly took his departure.

8. He did well, for all our islanders, and the other Skelda people who had been fighting were transported to Brittania. This step was a mistake, for now came the beginning of the end.

9. Kalta, who, people said, could go as easily on the water as on the land, went to the mainland and on to Missellia. Then came the Golar out of the Middel Sea with their ships to Kadik, and along all our coasts, and fell upon Brittania; but they could not make any good footing there, because the government was powerful and the exiles were still Children of Frya.

10. But now came Kalta and said, "You were born free, and for small offences have been sent away, not for your own improvement, but to get tin by your labour. If you wish to be free again, and take my advice, and live under my care, come away. I will provide you with arms, and will watch over you."

11. The news flew through the land like lightning, and before the carrier had made one revolution of the Yule she was mistress of all the Thyriar in all our southern states as far as the Seiene. She built herself a burgh in Berchland to the north, and called it Kaltasburch. It still exists under the name of Kerenak. From this burgh she ruled as a tyrannical folk-mother, against their will, not for her followers, but over them, who were thenceforth called Kaltanar.

12. The Golar gradually obtained dominion over the whole of Brittania, partly because they no longer had any burghs; secondly, because they had there no burgh-femmes; and thirdly, because they had no real lamps. From all these causes the people could not learn anything. They were stupid and foolish, and having allowed the Golar to rob them of their arms, they were led about like a bull with a ring in his nose.

02 Chapter XXVIII: Now we shall write how it fared with Jon; it is inscribed at Texland -

1. Ten years after Jon went away, there arrived three ships in the Flymar; the people cried, "Huzza!" From their accounts the folk-mother had this written:

2. When Jon reached the Middel Sea, the reports of the Golar had preceded him, so that on the coast of Heinde Krekaland he was nowhere safe. Therefore he went with his fleet straight over to Lydia. There the black men wanted to catch them and eat them. At last they came to Thyr, but Minerva said:

3. "Keep clear, for here the air has been long poisoned by the priests."

4. The king was a descendant of Tunis, as we were afterwards informed; but as the priests wished to have a king, who, according to their ideas, was of long descent, they deified Tunis, to the vexation of his followers. After they had passed Thyr, the Thyriar seized one of the rearmost ships, and as the ship was too far behind us, we could not take it back again; but Jon swore to be revenged for it.

5. When night came, Jon went his course towards Fere Krekaland. At last they arrived at a country that looked very barren, but they found a harbour there. Minerva said:

6. "Here we need not perhaps have any fear of princes or priests, as they always look out for rich fat lands."

7. When they entered the harbour, there was not room for all the ships, and yet most of the people were too cowardly to go any further.

8. Then Jon, who wished to get away, went with his spear and banner, calling to the young people, to know who would volunteer to share his adventures. Minerva did the same thing, but wished to remain there. The greater part stopped with Minerva, but the young navigators went with Jon. Jon took the lamp of Kalta and her femmes with him. Minerva retained her lamp and her own femmes.

9. Between Fere and Heinde Krekaland Jon found some islands, which he thought desirable. Upon the largest he built a burgh in the wood between the mountains. From the smaller islands he made expeditions for vengeance on the Thyriar, and plundered their ships and their lands. Therefore these islands were called Rawer Elanda, as well as Jonhis Elanda.

10. When Minerva had examined the country which is called by the inhabitants Attika, she saw that the people were all goatherds, and that they lived on meat, wild roots, herbs, and honey. They were clothed in skins, and had their dwellings on the slopes of the hills, wherefore they were called Hellinggar.

11. At first they ran away, but when they found that we did not attack them, they came back and showed great friendship. Minerva asked if we might settle there peaceably. This was agreed to on the condition that we should help them to fight against their neighbours, who came continually to carry away their children and to rob their dwellings.

12. Then we built a burgh at an hour's distance from the harbour. By the advice of Minerva it was called Athenia, because, she said:

13. "Those who came after us ought to know that we are not here by cunning or violence, but were received as friends."

14. While we were building the burgh the principal personages came to see us, and when they saw that we had no slaves it did not please them, and they gave Minerva to understand it, as they thought that she was a princess.

15. But Minerva said, "How did you get your slaves?"

16. They answered, "We bought some and took others in war."

17. Minerva replied, "If nobody would buy slaves they would not steal your children, and you would have no wars about it. If you wish to remain our allies, you will free your slaves."

18. The princes did not like this, and wanted to drive us away; but the most enlightened of the people came and helped us to build our burgh, which was built of stone.

19. This is the history of Jon and Minerva.

20. When they had finished their story they asked respectfully for silver weapons; for, said they, "Our foes are powerful, but if we have good arms we can withstand them."

21. When this had been agreed to, the people asked if Frya's customs would flourish in Athenia and in other parts of Krekaland. The folk-mother answered:

22. "If the Fere Krekalandar belong to the direct descent of Frya, then they will flourish; but if they do not descend from Frya, then there will be a long contention about it, because the carrier must make five thousand revolutions of his Yule before Finda's people will be ripe for liberty."

02 Chapter XXIX: This is about the Gertmannar -

1. When Hellenia or Minerva died, the priests pretended to be with us, and in order to make it appear so, they deified Hellenia. They refused to have any other burgh-femme chosen, saying that they feared there was no one among her femmes whom they could trust as they had trusted Minerva, surnamed Nyhellenia.

2. But we would not recognise Minerva as a goddess, because she herself had told us that no one could be perfectly good except the spirit of Wr-Alda. Therefore we chose Gert, Pire's daughter, for our burgh-femme.

3. When the priests saw that they could not fry their herrings on our fire, they left Athenia, and said that we refused to acknowledge Minerva as a goddess out of envy, because she had shown so much affection to the natives.

4. Thereupon they gave the people statues of her, declaring that they might ask of them whatever they liked, as long as they were obedient to her. By these kinds of tales the stupid people were estranged from us, and at last they attacked us; but as we had built our stone burgh wall with two horns down to the sea, they could not get at us. Then, lo and behold! An Egiptalandar high priest, bright of eye, clear of brain, and enlightened of mind, whose name was Sekrops, came to give them advice.

5. When he saw that with his people he could not storm our wall, he sent messengers to Thyr. Thereupon there arrived three hundred ships full of wild mountain soldiers, which sailed unexpectedly into our haven while we were defending the walls.

6. When they had taken our harbour the wild soldiers wanted to plunder the state and our ships - one had already ravished a girl - but Sekrops would not permit it; and the Thyriar navigators, who still had Frya's blood in their veins, said:

7. "If you do that we will burn our ships, and you shall never see your mountains again."

8. Sekrops, who had no inclination towards murder or devastation, sent messengers to Gert, requiring her to give up the burgh, offering her free exit with all her live and dead property, and her followers the same. The wisest of the burghers, seeing that they could not hold the burgh, advised Gert to accept at once, before Sekrops became furious and changed his mind.

9. Three months afterwards Gert departed with the best of Frya's Children, and seven times twelve ships. Soon after they had left the harbour they fell in with at least thirty ships coming from Thyr with women and children. They were on their way to Athenia, but when they heard how things stood there they went with Gert. The sea king of the Thyriar brought them altogether through the strait which at that time ran into the Rade Sea.

10. At last they landed at the Pangab, called in our language the five rivers, because five rivers flow together to the sea. Here they settled, and called it Gertmannia.

11. The king of Thyr afterwards, seeing that all his best navigators were gone, sent all his ships with his wild soldiers to catch them, dead or alive. When they arrived at the strait, both sea and Irtha trembled. The land was upheaved so that all the water ran out of the strait, and the muddy shores were raised up like a rampart. This happened on account of the virtues of the Gertmannar, as every one can plainly understand.

02 Chapter XXX: In the year 1005 after Aldland was submerged, this was inscribed on the eastern wall of Fryasburch

1. After twelve years had elapsed without our seeing any Krekalandar in Almanland, there came three ships, finer than any that we possessed or had ever seen.

2. On the largest of them was a king of the Jonhis Elenda whose name was Ulysus, the fame of whose wisdom was great. To him a priestess had prophesied that he should become the king of all Krekaland provided he could obtain a lamp that had been lighted at the lamp in Texland. For this purpose he had brought great treasures with him, above all, jewels for women more beautiful than had ever been seen before. They were from Troia, a state that the Krekalandar had taken.

3. All these treasures he offered to the folk-mother, but the folk-mother would have nothing to do with them. At last, when he found that there was nothing to be got from her, he went to Walhallagara.

4. There there was established a burgh-femme whose name was Kat, but who was commonly called Kalip, because her lower lip stuck out like a mast-head. Here he tarried for years, to the scandal of all that knew it.

5. According to the report of the femmes, he obtained a lamp from her; but it did him no good, because when he got to sea his ship was lost, and he was taken up naked and destitute by another ship.

6. There was left behind by this king a scribe of pure Frya's blood, born in the new harbour of Athenia, who wrote for us what follows about Athenia, from which may be seen how truly the folk-mother Hellicht spoke when she said that the customs of Frya could never take firm hold in Athenia.

7. From the other Krekalandar you will have heard a great deal of bad about Sekrops, because he was not in good repute; but I dare affirm that he was an enlightened man, very renowned both among the inhabitants and among us, for he was against oppression, unlike the other priests, and was virtuous, and knew how to value the wisdom of distant nations. Knowing that, he permitted us to live according to our own Law Book.

8. There was a story current that he was favourable to us because he was the son of a daughter of Frya and an Egiptalandar priest - the reason of this was that he had blue eyes, and that many of our girls had been stolen and sold to Egiptaland, but he never confirmed this. However it may have been, certain it is that he showed us more friendship than all the other priests together.

9. When he died, his successors soon began to tear up our charters, and gradually to enact so many unsuitable statutes that at long last nothing remained of liberty but the shadow and the name. Besides, they would not allow the laws to be written, so that the knowledge of them was hidden from us. Formerly all the cases in Athenia were pleaded in our language, but afterwards in both languages, and at last in the native language only.

10. At first the men of Athenia only married women of our own race, but the young men as they grew up with the girls of the country took them to wife. The bastard children of this connection were the handsomest and cleverest in the World; but they were likewise the wickedest, wavering between the two parties, paying no regard to laws or customs except where they suited their own interests.

11. As long as a ray of Frya's spirit existed, all the building materials were for common use, and no one might build a house larger or better than his neighbour's; but when some degenerate statesmen got rich by sea-voyages and by the silver that their slaves got in the silver countries, they went to live out on the hills or in the valleys.

12. There, behind high enclosures of trees or walls, they built palaces with costly furniture, and in order to remain in good odour with the nasty priests, they placed there likenesses of false gods and unchaste statues. Sometimes the dirty priests and princes wished for the boys rather than the girls, and often led them astray from the paths of virtue by rich presents or by force.

13. Because riches were more valued by this lost and degenerate race than virtue or honour, one sometimes saw boys dressed in splendid flowing robes, to the disgrace of their parents and femmes, and to the shame of their own sex.

14. If our simple parents came to a general assembly at Athenia and made complaints, a cry was raised, "Hear, Hear! There is a sea-monster going to speak!"

15. Such is Athenia become, like a morass in a tropical country full of leeches, toads, and poisonous snakes, in which no man of decent habits can set his foot.

02 Chapter XXXI: This is inscribed in all our burghs -

1. How our Denamark was lost to us in the year 1602 after the submersion of Aldland.

2. Through the mad wantonness of Wodin, Magy had become master of the east part of Skenland. They dare not come over the hills and over the sea. The folk-mother would not prevent it. She said:

3. "I see no danger in their weapons, but much in taking the Skenlandar back again, because they are so degenerate and spoilt."

4. The general assembly were of the same opinion. Therefore it was left to him.

5. A good hundred years ago the Denamarkar began to trade; they gave their silver weapons in exchange for gold ornaments, as well as for copper and silver-ore. The folk-mother sent messengers to advise them to have nothing to do with this trade. There was danger to their morals in it, and if they lost their morals they would soon lose their liberty.

6. But the Denamarkar paid no attention to her. They did not believe that they could lose their morals, therefore they would not listen to her. At last they were at a loss themselves for weapons and necessaries, and this difficulty was their punishment. Their bodies were brilliantly adorned, but their cupboards and their sheds were empty.

7. Just one hundred years after the first ship with provisions sailed from the coast, poverty and want made their appearance, hunger spread her wings all over the land, dissension marched proudly about the streets and into the houses, charity found no place, and unity departed. The child asked its mother for food; she had no food to give, only jewels. The women applied to their husbands, the husbands appealed to the reeves; the reeves had nothing to give, or if they had, they hid it away.

8. Now the jewels must be sold, but while the navigators were away for that purpose, the frost came and laid a plank upon the sea and the strait. When the frost had made the bridge, vigilance ceased in the land, and treachery took its place. Instead of watching on the shores, they put their horses in their sledges and drove off to Skenland.

9. Then the Skenlandar, who hungered after the land of their forefathers, came to Denamark. One bright night they all came. They said:

10. "Now we have a right to the land of our fathers."

11. And while they were fighting about it, the Finnar came to the defenceless states and ran away with the children. As they had no good weapons, they lost the battle, and with it their freedom, and Magy became master.

12. All this was the consequence of their not reading Frya's Tex, and neglecting her counsels.

13. There are some who think that they were betrayed by the reeves, and that the femmes had long suspected it; but if any one attempted to speak about it, his mouth was shut by golden chains.

14. We can express no opinion about it, we can only say to you: Do not trust too much to the wisdom of your princes or of your femmes; but if you wish to keep things straight, everybody must watch over his passions, as well as the general welfare.

15. Two years afterwards Magy himself came with a fleet of light boats to steal the lamp from the folk-mother of Texland.

16. This wicked deed he accomplished one stormy winter night, while the wind roared and the hail rattled against the windows. The watchman on the tower hearing the noise, lighted his torch. As soon as the light from the tower fell upon the burgh, he saw that already armed men had got over the wall.

17. He immediately gave the alarm, but it was too late. Before the guard was ready, there were two thousand people battering the gate. The struggle did not last long. As the guard had not kept a good watch, they were overwhelmed.

18. While the fight was going on, a rascally Finn stole into the bedroom of the folk-mother, and would have raped her. She resisted him, and threw him down against the wall. When he got up, he ran his sword through her:

19. "If you will not have me, you shall have my sword."

20. A Denamarkar soldier came behind him and clave his head in two. There came from it a stream of black blood and a wreath of blue flame.

21. The Magy had the folk-mother nursed on his own ship. As soon as she was well enough to speak clearly, the Magy told her that she must sail with him, but that she should keep her lamp and her femmes, and should hold a station higher than she had ever done before.

22. Moreover, he said that he should ask her, in presence of all his chief men, if he would become the ruler of all the lands and people of Frya; that she must declare and affirm this, or he would let her die a painful death.

23. Then, when he had gathered all his chiefs around her bed, he asked, in a loud voice, "Frana, since you are a prophetess, shall I become ruler over all the lands and people of Frya?"

24. Frana did as if she took no notice of him; but at last she opened her lips, and said:

25. "My eyes are dim, but the other light dawns upon my soul. Yes, I see it. Hear, Irtha, and rejoice with me.

26. "At the time of the submersion of Aldland, the first spoke of the Yule stood at the top. After that it went down, and our freedom with it.

27. "When two spokes, or two thousand years, shall have rolled down, the sons shall arise who have been bred of the fornication of the princes and priests with the people, and shall witness against their fathers.

They shall all fall by murder, but what they have proclaimed shall endure, and shall bear fruit in the bosoms of able men, like good seed which is laid in thy lap.

28. "Yet a thousand years shall the spoke descend, and sink deeper in darkness, and in the blood shed over you by the wickedness of the princes and priests.

29. "After that, the dawn shall begin to glow. When they perceive this, the false princes and priests will strive and wrestle against freedom; but freedom, love, and unity will take the people under their protection, and rise out of the vile pool.

30. "The light which at first only glimmered shall flow over your surface, but you must not absorb it. At last the poisoned animals shall eat it, and die of it. All the stories that have been written in praise of the princes and priests shall be committed to the flames. Thenceforth your children shall live in peace."

31. When she had finished speaking she sank down.

32. The Magy, who had not understood her, shrieked out, "I asked you if I should become master of all the lands and people of Frya, and now you have been speaking to another."

33. Frana raised herself up, stared at him, and said, "Before seven days have passed your soul shall haunt the tombs with the night-birds, and your body shall be at the bottom of the sea."

34. Swelling with rage, the Magy said, "Very good; say that I am coming!"

35. Then he said to his executioners, "Throw this woman overboard!"

36. This was the end of the last of the folk-mothers. We do not ask for revenge. Time will provide that; but a thousand thousand times we will call with Frya - "Watch! Watch! Watch!"

02 Chapter XXXII: How it fared afterwards with the Magy -

1. After the murder of the folk-mother, he brought the lamp and the femmes into his own ship, together with all the booty that he chose. Afterwards he went up the Flymar because he wished to take the burgh-femme of Medeasblik or Stavia and install her as folk-mother; but there they were on their guard.

2. The navigators of Staveren and Alderga would gladly have gone to Jon, but the great fleet was out on a distant voyage; so they proceeded in their small fleet to Medeasblik, and kept themselves concealed in a sheltered place behind trees.

3. The Magy approached Medeasblik in broad daylight; nevertheless, his men boldly stormed the burgh. But as they landed from the boats, our people sallied forth from the creek, and shot their arrows with balls of burning turpentine upon the fleet. They were so well aimed that many of the ships were instantly on fire. Those left to guard the ships shot at us, but they could not reach us.

4. When at last a burning ship drifted towards the ship of the Magy, he ordered the man at the helm to sheer of, but this man was the Denamarkar who had cleft the head of the Finn. He said:

5. "You sent our folk-mother to the bottom of the sea to say that you were coming. In the bustle of the fight you might forget it; now I will take care that you keep your word."

6. The Magy tried to push him off, but the navigator, a real Child of Frya and strong as an ox, clutched his head with both hands, and pitched him into the surging billows. Then he hoisted up his brown shield, and sailed straight to our fleet. Thus the femmes came unhurt to us; but the lamp was extinguished, and no one knew how that had happened.

7. When those on the uninjured ships heard that the Magy was drowned, they sailed away, because their crews were Denamarkar. When the fleet was far enough off, our navigators turned and shot their burning arrows at the Finnar.

8. When the Finnar saw that, and found that they were betrayed, they fell into confusion, and lost all discipline and order. At this moment the garrison sallied forth from the burgh. Those who resisted were killed, and those who fled found their death in the marshes of the Krylinger Wald.

02 Chapter XXXIII: Postscript -

1. When the navigators were in the creek, there was a wag from Staveren among them, who said, "Medea may well laugh if we rescue her from the burgh."

2. Upon this, the femmes gave to the creek the name Medea Meilakkia.

3. The occurrences that happened after this everybody can remember. The femmes ought to relate it in their own way, and have it well inscribed. We consider that our task is fulfilled. Hail!

4. The end of the book.

The Oera Linda Book, 1 Okke, my son

The Oera Linda Book

Written in 1256 AD, from a diary
which was put together 560-558 BC.

from the Original Frisian text

verified by Dr. Ottema

by :

William R. Sandbach

Londen, Trubner & Co, 1876

The Letters


01 Chapter I: Okke, my son -

1. You must preserve these books with body and soul. They contain the history of all our people, as well as of our forefathers.

2. Last year I saved them in the flood, as well as you and your mother; but they got wet, and therefore began to perish. In order not to lose them, I copied them on foreign paper.

3. In case you inherit them, you must copy them likewise, and your children must do so too, so that they may never be lost.

4. Written at Liudwerd, in the year 3449 after Atland was submerged - that is, according to the Christian reckoning, the year 1256.

Hidde, surnamed Oera Linda - Watch!

01 Chapter II: Beloved successors -

1. For the sake of our dear forefathers, and of our dear liberty, I entreat you a thousand times never let the eye of a monk look on these writings.

2. The monks are very insinuating, but they destroy in an underhand manner all that relates to us Children of Frya.

3. In order to gain rich benefices, they conspire with foreign kings, who know that we are their greatest enemies, because we dare to speak to their people of liberty, rights, and the duties of princes. Therefore they seek to destroy all that we derive from our forefathers, and all that is left of our old customs.

4. Ah, my beloved ones! I have visited their courts! If Wr-Alda permits it, and we do not show ourselves strong to resist, they will altogether exterminate us.

Written at Liudwerd, in the year 803 of the Christian era.

Liko, surnamed Oera Linda.

The Oera Linda Book, 3 The Writings of Adelbrost and Apollonia

The Oera Linda Book

Written in 1256 AD, from a diary
which was put together 560-558 BC.

from the Original Frisian text

verified by Dr. Ottema

by :

William R. Sandbach

Londen, Trubner & Co, 1876

The Writings of Adelbrost and Apollonia

03 Chapter I: My name is Adelbrost, the son of Apol and Adela -

1. I was elected by my people as reeve over the Lindawrda. Therefore I will continue this book in the same way as my mother has spoken it.

2. After the Magy was killed and Fryasburch was restored, a folk-mother had to be chosen. The folk-mother had not named her successor, and her will was nowhere to be found. Seven months later a general assembly was called at Grenega, because it was on the boundary of Saxanamark. My mother was chosen, but she would not be the folk-mother. She had saved my fathers life, in consequence of which they had fallen in love with each other, and she wished to marry.

3. Many people wished my mother to alter her decision, but she said:

4. "A folk-mother ought to be as pure in her conscience as she appears outwardly, and to have the same love for all her children. Now, as I love Apol better than anything else in the World, I cannot be such a folk-mother."

5. Thus spoke and reasoned Adela, but all the other femmes wished to be the folk-mother. Each state was in favour of its own femme, and would not yield. Therefore none was chosen, and the country was without any restraint.

6. From what follows you will understand Liudgert, the king who had lately died, who had been chosen in the lifetime of the folk-mother, and seemingly with the love and confidence of all the states.

7. It was his turn to live at the great court of Dokhem, and in the lifetime of the folk-mother great honour was done to him there, as there were more messengers and knights there than had ever been seen there before. But now he was lonely and forsaken, because every one was afraid that he would set himself above the law, and rule them like the slave kings.

8. Every official imagined that he did enough if he looked after his own state, and did nor care for the others. With the burgh-femmes it was still worse. Each of them depended upon her own judgment, and whenever a reeve did anything without her, she raised distrust between him and his people. If any case happened which concerned several states, and one femme had been consulted, the rest all exclaimed that she had spoken only in the interest of her own state.

9. By such proceedings they brought disputes among the states, and so severed the bond of union that the people of one state were jealous of those of the rest, or at least considered them as strangers; the consequence of which was that the Golar or Trowydar took possession of our lands as far as the Skelda, and the Magy as far as the Wrsara.

10. How this happened my mother has explained, otherwise this book would not have been written, although I have lost all hope that it would be of any use. I do not write in the hope that I shall win back the land or preserve it: in my opinion that is impossible. I write only for the future generations, that they may all know in what way we were lost, and that each may learn that every crime brings its punishment.

11. My name is Apollonia. Two-and-thirty days after my mothers death my brother Adelbrost was found murdered on the wharf, his skull fractured and his limbs torn asunder. My father, who lay ill, died of fright. Then my younger brother, Apol, sailed from here to the west side of Skenland. There he built a burgh named Lindasburch, in order there to avenge our wrong. Wr-Alda accorded him many years for that. He had five sons, who all caused fear to Magy, and brought fame to my brother.

12. After the death of my mother and my brother, all the bravest of the land joined together and made a covenant, called the Adelband. In order to preserve us from injury, they brought me and my youngest brother, Adelhirt, to the burgh - me to the femmes, and him to the warriors.

13. When I was thirty years old I was chosen as burgh-femme, and my brother at fifty was chosen reeve. From mothers side my brother was the sixth, but from fathers side the third. By right, therefore, his descendants could not put Oera Linda after their names, but they all wished to do it in honour of their mother.

14. In addition to this, there was given to us also a copy of The Book of Adelas Followers. That gave me the most pleasure, because it came into the World by my mothers wisdom. In the burgh I have found other writings also in praise of my mother. All this I will write afterwards.

15. These are the writings left by Brunno, who was the scribe of this burgh:

16. After the followers of Adela had made copies, each in his state, of what was inscribed upon the walls of the burgh, they resolved to choose a folk-mother. For this purpose a general assembly was called at this farm.

17. By the advice of Adela, Tuntia was recommended. That would have been arranged, only that my burgh-femme asked to speak: she had always supposed that she would be chosen folk-mother, because she was at the burgh from which folk-mothers had generally been chosen.

18. When she was allowed to speak, she opened her false lips and said:

19. "You all seem to place great value on Adelas advice, but that shall not shut my mouth. Who is Adela, and whence comes it that you respect her so highly? She was what I am now, a burgh-femme of this place; is she, then, wiser and better than I and all the others? Or is she more conversant with our laws and customs?

20. "If that had been the case, she would have become folk-mother when she was chosen; but instead of that, she preferred matrimony to a single life, watching over herself and her people. She is certainly very clear-sighted, but my eyes are far from being dim. I have observed that she is very much attached to her husband, which is very praiseworthy; but I see, likewise, that Tuntia is Apols niece. Further I say nothing."

21. The principal people understood very well which way the wind blew with her; but among the people there arose disputes, and as most of the people came from here, they would not give the honour to Tuntia. The conferences were ended, knives were drawn, and no folk-mother was chosen.

22. Shortly afterwards one of our messengers killed his comrade. As he had been a man of good character hitherto, my burgh-femme had permission to help him over the frontier; but instead of helping him over to Twiskland, she fled with him herself to Wrsara, and then to the Magy.

23. The Magy, who wished to please his sons of Frya, appointed her burgh-femme of Godahisburch, in Skenland; but she wished for more, and she told him that if he could get Adela out of the way he might become master of the whole of Fryasland. She said she hated Adela for having prevented her from being chosen folk-mother. If he would promise her Texland, her messenger should serve as guide to his warriors. All this was confessed by her messenger.

03 Chapter II: The second writing -

1. Fifteen months after the last general assembly, at the festival of the Winne Month, everybody gave himself up to pleasure and merry-making, and no one thought of anything but diversion; but Wr-Alda wished to teach us that watchfulness should never be relaxed. In the midst of the festivities the fog came and enveloped every place in darkness. Cheerfulness melted away, but watchfulness did not take its place. The coastguard deserted their beacons, and no one was to be seen on any of the paths.

2. When the fog rose, the sun scarcely appeared among the clouds; but the people all came out shouting with joy, and the young folks went about singing to their bagpipes, filling the air with their melody. But while every one was intoxicated with pleasure, treachery had landed with its horses and riders.

3. As usual, darkness had favoured the wicked, and they had slipped in through the paths of Linda Wald. Before Adelas door twelve girls led twelve lambs, and twelve boys led twelve calves. A young Saxman bestrode a wild bull which he had caught and tamed. They were decked with all kinds of flowers, and the linen tunics of the girls were fringed with gold from the Rene.

4. When Adela came out of her house, a shower of flowers fell on her head; they all cheered loudly, and the fifes of the boys were heard over everything. Poor Adela! Poor people! How short will be your joy! When the procession was out of sight, a troop of Magyarar soldiers rushed up to Adelas house.

5. Her father and her husband were sitting on the steps. The door was open, and within stood Adelbrost her son. When he saw the danger of his parents, he took his bow from the wall and shot the leader of the pirates, who staggered and fell on the grass. The second and third met a similar fate.

6. In the meantime his parents had seized their weapons, and went slowly to Jons house. They would soon have been taken, but Adela came. She had learned in the burgh to use all kinds of weapons. She was seven feet high, and her sword was the same length. She waved it three times over her head, and each time a knight bit the dirt.

7. Reinforcements came, and the pirates were made prisoners; but too late - an arrow had penetrated her bosom! The treacherous Magy had poisoned it, and she died of it.

03 Chapter III: The elegy of the burgh-femme -

1. Yes, departed friend, thousands are arrived, and more are coming.

2. They wish to hear the wisdom of Adela.

3. Truly, she was a princess, for she had always been the leader.

4. O sorrow, what can you do?

5. Her short kilt of linen, and her tunic of wool, she spun and wove herself. How could she add to her beauty? Not with pearls, for her teeth were more white; not with gold, for her tresses were more brilliant; not with precious stones, for her eyes, though soft as those of a lamb, were so lustrous that you could scarcely look into them.

6. But why do I talk of beauty?

7. Frya was certainly not more beautiful.

8. Yes, my friends, Frya possessed seven perfections, of which each of her daughters inherited one, or at most three. But even if she had been ugly, she would still have been dear to us.

9. Is she warlike? Listen, my friend. Adela was the only daughter of our reeve. She stood seven feet high. Her wisdom exceeded her stature, and her courage was equal to both together.

10. Here is an instance. There was once a turf-ground on fire. Three children got upon yonder gravestone. There was a furious wind. The people were all shouting, and their mother was helpless. Then came Adela. She cried:

11. "What are you all standing still here for? Try to help them, and Wr-Alda will give you strength."

12. Then she ran to the Krylwald and got some elder branches, of which she made a bridge. The others then came to assist her, and the children were saved.

13. The children bring flowers to the place every year.

14. There came once three Phonisiar sailors, who began to ill-treat the children, when Adela, having heard their screams, beat the scoundrels till they were insensible, and then, to prove to them what miserable wretches they were, she tied them all three to a spindle.

15. The foreign lords came to look after their people, and when they saw how ridiculously they had been treated they were very angry, till they were told what had happened.

16. Upon that they bowed themselves before Adela, and kissed the hems of her short kilt and tunic.

17. But come, distant living friend. The birds of the forest fled before the numerous visitors. Come, friend, and you shall hear her wisdom.

18. By the gravestone of which mention has already been made her body is buried. Upon the stone the following words are inscribed:

19. "Tread softly, for here lies Adela."

20. The old legend which is written on the outside wall of the burgh tower is not written in The Book of Adelas Followers. Why this has been neglected I do not know; but this book is my own, so I will put it in out of regard to my relations.

03 Chapter IV: The oldest doctrine -

1. Hail to all the well-intentioned Children of Frya!

2. Through you Irtha shall become holy.

3. Learn and announce to the people that Wr-Alda is the ancient of ancients, for he created all things.

4. Wr-Alda is all in all, for he is eternal and everlasting.

5. Wr-Alda is everywhere but invisible, and therefore is called a spirit. All that we can see of him are the created beings who come to life through him and go again, because from Wr-Alda all things proceed and return to him.

6. Wr-Alda is the beginning and the end.

7. Wr-Alda is the only mighty being, because from him all strength comes, and returns to him. Therefore he alone is the creator, and nothing exists without him.

8. Wr-Alda established eternal principles, upon which the laws of creation were founded, and no good laws could stand on any other foundation.

9. But although everything is derived from Wr-Alda, the wickedness of men does not come from him. Wickedness comes from heaviness, carelessness, and stupidity; therefore they may well be injurious to men, but never to Wr-Alda.

10. Wr-Alda is wisdom, and the laws that he has made are the books from which we learn, nor is any wisdom to be found or gathered but in them.

11. Men may see a great deal, but Wr-Alda sees everything. Men can learn a great deal, but Wr-Alda knows everything. Men can discover much, but to Wr-Alda everything is open. Mankind are male and female, but Wr-Alda created both. Mankind love and hate, but Wr-Alda alone is just. Therefore Wr-Alda is good, and there is no good without him.

12. In the progress of time all creation alters and changes, but goodness alone is unalterable; and since Wr-Alda is good, he cannot change. As he endures, he alone exists; everything else is show.

03 Chapter V: The second part of the oldest doctrine -

1. Among Findas people there are false teachers, who, by their over-inventiveness, have become so wicked that they make themselves and their adherents believe that they are the best part of Wr-Alda, that their spirit is the best part of Wr-Aldas spirit, and that Wr-Alda can only think by the help of their brains.

2. That every creature is a part of Wr-Aldas eternal being, that they have stolen from us.

3. But their false reasoning and ungovernable pride have brought them on the road to ruin. If their spirit was Wr-Aldas spirit, then Wr-Alda would be very stupid, instead of being sensible and wise; for their spirit labours to create beautiful statues, which they afterwards worship.

4. Findas people are a wicked people, for although they presumptuously pretend among themselves that they are gods, they proclaim the unconsecrated false gods, and declare everywhere that these idols created Wr-Alda and all that therein is - greedy idols, full of envy and anger, who desire to be served and honoured by the people, and who exact bloody sacrifices and rich offerings; but these presumptuous and false men, who call themselves servants of the gods and priests, receive and collect everything in the name of the idols that have no real existence, for their own benefit.

5. They do all this with an easy conscience, as they think themselves gods not answerable to any one. If there are some who discover their tricks and expose them, they hand them over to the executioners to be burnt for their calumnies, with solemn ceremonies in honour of the false gods; but really in order to save themselves.

6. In order that our children may be protected against their idolatrous doctrine, the duty of the femmes is to make them learn by heart the following:

7. "Wr-Alda existed before all things, and will endure after all things. Wr-Alda is also eternal and everlasting, therefore nothing exists without him. From Wr-Aldas life sprang time and all living things, and his life takes away time and every other thing."

8. These things must be made clear and manifest in every way, so that they can be made clear and comprehensible to all. When we have learned thus much, then we say further:

9. "In what regards our existence, we are a part of Wr-Aldas everlasting being, like the existence of all created beings; but as regards our form, our qualities, our spirit, and all our thoughts, these do not belong to the being."

10. All these are passing things which appear through Wr-Aldas life, and which appear through his wisdom, and not otherwise; but whereas his life is continually progressing, nothing can remain stationary, therefore all created things change their locality, their form, and their thoughts.

11. So neither Irtha nor any other created object can say, "I am" but rather, "I was". So no man can say, "I think" but rather, "I thought".

12. The boy is greater and different from the child; he has different desires, inclinations, and thoughts. The man and father feels and thinks differently from the boy, the old man just the same. Everybody knows that.

13. Besides, everybody knows and must acknowledge that he is now changing, that he changes every minute even while he says, "I am", and that his thoughts change even while he says, "I think".

14. Instead, then, of imitating Findas wicked people, and saying, "I am the best part of Wr-Alda, and through us alone he can think."

15. We proclaim everywhere where it is necessary, "We, Fryas Children, exist through Wr-Aldas life - in the beginning mean and base, but always advancing towards perfection without ever attaining the excellence of Wr-Alda himself."

16. Our spirit is not Wr-Aldas spirit, it is merely a shadow of it.

17. When Wr-Alda created us, he lent us his wisdom, brains, organs, memory, and many other good qualities. By this means we are able to contemplate his creatures and his laws; by this means we can learn and can speak of them always, and only for our own benefit. If Wr-Alda had given us no organs, we should have known nothing, and been more irrational than a piece of sea-weed driven up and down by the ebb and flood.

03 Chapter VI: This is written on parchment; speech and answer to other femmes as an example -

1. An unsociable, avaricious man came to complain to Trast, who was the femme of Stavia. He said a thunderstorm had destroyed his house. He had prayed to Wr-Alda, but Wr-Alda had given him no help.

2. Trast asked, "Are you a true Child of Frya?"

3. The man replied, "From father and forefathers."

4. Then she said, "I will sow something in your conscience, in confidence that it will take root, grow, and bear fruit.

5. "When Frya was born, our mother stood naked and bare, unprotected from the rays of the sun. She could ask no one, and there was no one who could give her any help

6. "Then Wr-Alda wrought in her conscience inclination and love, anxiety and fright. She looked round her, and her inclination chose the best. She sought a hiding-place under the sheltering lime-trees, but the rain came, and the difficulty was that she got wet. She had seen how the water ran down the pendent leaves; so she made a roof of leaves fastened with sticks, but the wind blew the rain under it.

7. "She observed that the stem would afford protection. She then built a wall of sods, first on one side, and then all round. The wind grew stronger and blew away the roof, but she made no complaint of Wr-Alda. She made a roof of rushes, and put stones upon it. Having found how hard it is to toil alone, she showed her children how and why she had done it. They acted and thought as she did.

8. "This is the way in which we became possessed of houses and porches, a street, and lime-trees to protect us from the rays of the sun. At last we have built a burgh, and all the rest. If your house is not strong enough, then you must try and make another."

9. He said, "My house was strong enough, but the flood and the wind destroyed it."

10. Trast asked, "Where did your house stand?"

11. He answered, "On the bank of the Rene."

12. Trast asked, "Did it stand on a knoll or in a village?"

13. The man said, "No; my house stood alone on the bank. I built it alone, but I could not alone make a hillock."

14. Trast answered, "I knew it; the femmes told me. All your life you have avoided your neighbours, fearing that you might have to give or do something for them; but one cannot get on in Wr-Alda that way, for Wr-Alda, who is kind, turns away from the niggardly.

15. "Fasta has advised us, and it is engraved in stone over all our doors.

16. "If you are selfish, distrustful towards your neighbours, teach your neighbours, help your neighbours, and they will return the same to you. If this advice is not good enough for you, I can give you no better."

17. The man blushed for shame, and slunk away.

03 Chapter VII: Now I will write myself, first about my burgh, and then about what I have been able to see -

1. My burgh lies near the north end of the Liudgarda. The tower has six sides, and is ninety feet high, flat-roofed, with a small house upon it out of which they look at the stars. On each side of the tower is a house three hundred feet long, and twenty-one feet broad, and twenty-one feet high, besides the roof, which is round. All this is built of hard-baked bricks, and outside there is nothing else. The burgh is surrounded by a dyke, with a moat thirty-six feet broad and twenty-one feet deep.

2. If one looks down from the tower, he sees the form of the Yule. In the ground among the houses on the south side all kinds of native and foreign herbs grow, of which the femmes must study the qualities. Among the houses on the north side there are only fields. The three houses on the north are full of corn and other necessaries; the two houses on the south are for the femmes to live in and keep school. The most southern house is the dwelling of the burgh-femme.

3. In the tower hangs the lamp. The walls of the tower are decorated with precious stones. On the south wall the Tex is inscribed. On the right side of this are the formulas, and on the other side the laws; the other things are found upon the three other sides.

4. Against the dyke, near the house of the burgh-femme, stand the oven and the mill, worked by four oxen. Outside the burgh wall is the place where the burghers and the warriors live. The fortification outside is an hour long - not a navigators hour, but an hour of the sun, of which twenty-four go to a day. Inside it is a plain five feet below the top. On it are three hundred crossbows covered with wood and leather.

5. Besides the houses of the inhabitants, there are along the inside of the dyke thirty-six refuge-houses for the people who live in the neighbourhood. The field serves for a camp and for a meadow. On the south side of the outer fortification is the Liudgarda, enclosed by the great Linda Wald. Its shape is three-cornered, with the widest part outside, so that the sun may shine in it, for there are a great number of foreign trees and flowers brought by the navigators.

6. All the other burghs are the same shape as ours, only not so large; but the largest of all is that of Texland. The tower of the Fryasburch is so high that it rends the sky, and all the rest is in proportion to the tower.

7. In our burgh this is the arrangement:

8. Seven young femmes attend to the lamp, giving thricefold thanks to Wr-Aldas spirit; each watch is three hours, in which they must bend their knees six hundred times. In the rest of their time they do housework, learn, and sleep. When they have watched for seven years they are discharged; then they may go among the people as elder-femmes, to look after their morals and to give advice. The elder-femmes must give thricefold thanks to Wr-Aldas spirit for six hours each day. When the femmes have served three years, they may sometimes accompany the elder-femmes.

9. The scribe must teach the femmes to read, to write, and to reckon. The elders, or burghers, must teach them justice and duty, morals, botany, and medicine, history, traditions, and singing, besides all that may be necessary for them to give advice. The burgh-femme must teach them how to set to work when they go among the people.

10. Before a burgh-femme can take office, she must travel through the land a whole year. Three grey-headed burghers and three elder-femmes must go with her.

11. This was the way that I did. My journey was along the Rene - on this side up, and on the other side down. The higher I went, the poorer the people seemed to be. Everywhere about the Rene the people dug holes, and the sand that was got out was poured with water over fleeces to get the gold, but the girls did not wear golden crowns of it. Formerly they were more numerous, but since we lost Skenland they have gone up to the mountains. There they dig ore and make silver.

12. Above the Rene among the mountains I have seen Marsatar. The Marsatar are people who live on the lakes. Their houses are built upon piles, for protection from the wild beasts and wicked people. There are wolves, bears, and horrible lions. Then come the Swetsar, the nearest to the frontiers of the Heinde Krekalandar, the followers of Kalta and the savage Twisklandar, all greedy for robbery and booty.

13. The Marsatar gain their livelihood by fishing and hunting. The skins are sewn together by the women, and prepared with birch bark. The small skins are as soft as a womans skin. The burgh-femme at Fryasburch told us that they were good, simple people; but if I had not heard her speak of them first, I should have thought that they were not Fryas people, they looked so impudent.

14. Their wool and herbs are bought by the Rene people, and taken to foreign countries by the ship captains. Along the other side of the Rene it was just the same as at Lydasburch. There was a great river or lake, and upon this lake also there were people living upon piles. But they were not Fryas people; they were black and brown men who had been employed as rowers to bring home the men who had been making foreign voyages, and they had to stay there till the fleet went back.

15. At last we came to Alderga. At the head of the south harbour lies the Waraburch, built of stone, in which all kinds of clothes, weapons, shells, and horns are kept, which were brought by the navigators from distant lands. A quarter of an hours distance from there is Alderga, a great river surrounded by houses, sheds, and gardens, all richly decorated. In the river lay a great fleet ready, with banners of all sorts of colours.

16. On Fryas Day the shields were hung on board likewise. Some shone like the sun. The shields of the sea king and the admiral were bordered with gold. From the river a canal was dug going past the burgh Forana, with a narrow outlet to the sea. This was the egress of the fleet; the Fly was the ingress. On both sides of the river are fine houses built, painted in bright colours. The gardens are all surrounded by green hedges.

17. I saw there women wearing felt tunics, as if it were writing felt. Just as at Staveren, the girls wore golden crowns on their heads, and rings on their arms and ankles.

18. To the south of Forana lies Alkmarum. Alkmarum is a lake or river in which there is an island. On this island the black and brown people must remain, the same as at Lydasburch.

19. The burgh-femme of Forana told me that the burghers go every day to teach them what real freedom is, and how it behoves men to live in order to obtain the blessing of Wr-Aldas spirit. If there was any one who was willing to listen and could comprehend, he was kept there till he was fully taught. That was done in order to instruct the distant people, and to make friends everywhere.

20. I had been before in the Saxanamark, at the burgh Mannagardaforda. There I saw more poverty than I could discover wealth here.

21. She told me that whenever at the Saxanamark a young man courts a young girl, the girl asks:

22. "Can you keep your house free from the banished Trisklanders? Have you ever killed any of them? How many cattle have you already caught, and how many bear and wolf skins have you brought to market?"

23. And from this it comes that the Saxmannar have left the cultivation of the soil to the women, that not one in a hundred can read or write; from this it comes, too, that no one has a motto on his shield, but only a misshapen form of some animal that he has killed; and lastly, from this comes also that they are very war-like, but sometimes as stupid as the beasts that they catch, and as poor as the Twisklandar with whom they go to war.

24. Irtha and the sea were made for Fryas people. All our rivers run into the sea. The Lydas people and the Findas people will exterminate each other, and we must people the empty countries. In movement and sailing is our prosperity.

25. If you wish the highlanders to share our riches and wisdom, I will give you a piece of advice.

26. Let the girls, when they are asked to marry, before they agree, ask their lovers:

27. "What parts of the World have you travelled in? What can you tell your children about distant lands and distant people?"

28. If they do this, then the young warriors will come to us; they will become wiser and richer, and we shall have no occasion to deal with those nasty people.

29. The youngest of the femmes who were with me came from the Saxanamark. When we came back she asked leave to go home. Afterwards she became burgh-femme there, and that is the reason why in these days so many of our navigators are Saxmannar.

30. The end of Apollonias book.


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