Wednesday, May 22, 2024
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Pseudepigrapha Books, Index

Pseudepigrapha books

Pseudepigrapha are spurious works ostensibly written by a biblical figure. Deuterocanonical works are those that are accepted in one canon but not in all.

Old Testament Pseudepigrapha are extremely numerous and offer accounts of patriarchs and events, attributed to various biblical personages from Adam to Zechariah. Some of the most significant of these works are the Ascension of Isaiah, the Assumption of Moses, the Life of Adam and Eve, the First and Second Books of Enoch, the Book of Jubilees, the Letter of Aristeas, and the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs.

All the New Testament apocrypha are Pseudepigraphal, and most of them fall into the categories of acts, gospels, and epistles, though there are a number of apocalypses and some can be characterized as wisdom books. The apocryphal acts purport to relate the lives or careers of various biblical figures, including most of the apostles; the epistles, gospels, and others are ascribed to such figures. Some relate encounters and events in mystical language and describe arcane rituals. Most of these works arose from sects that had been or would be declared heretical, such as, importantly, the Gnostics. Some of them argued against various heresies, and a few appear to have been neutral efforts to popularize the life of some saint or other early leader of the church, including a number of women. In the early decades of Christianity no orthodoxy had been established, and various parties or factions were vying for ascendancy and regularity in the young church. All sought through their writings, as through their preaching and missions, to win believers. In this setting virtually all works advocating beliefs that later became heretical were destined to denunciation and destruction.

Book of The Generations of Adam

Book of The Generations of Adam

The Book of the Generations of Adam was the Book of Remembrance commenced by Adam subsequent to the expulsion from the Garden. In it he recorded his experiences in the fallen world for the benefit of his posterity. This book is referred to by Moses in his recounting of the history of the first ages of the world. Sometime subsequent to the compilation of Moses' history, the Book of Generations was lost from among men, but it was preserved in the mind of God, the Holy Spirit, until the last dispensation when it is being brought forth for the edification of those who are attempting to recreate at the end of time that Holy Order which existed among our First Parents.

see also:

Gn:5:1: This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made he him;


1. IN the day that the Eloheim created man, in the likeness of the Eloheim made He him, in the image of His own body, male and female, created He them and blessed them and called their name Adam, which being interpreted is, first blood or the first man having blood in his veins; and thus were they called Adam in the day when they were created and became living souls in the land, upon the footstool of the Eloheim.

2. Behold, it is I, Adam, who write this record, for thus did the Lord command me, that there should be a book of remembrance kept among my people, even from generation to generation, in which we should record those things which transpire among us and the mighty works which the Eloheim should perform in our behalf.

3. I and my people have come out form a land of great plenty, a land of beauty and peace, where the Lord God had placed us. There, in a garden of delights, we received every good thing from the hands of our Eloheim, who required only that we dress the garden and that we refrain from partaking of the fruit of the tree which was in the midst of the garden, lest we die. Of death we knew nothing, but we understood that if we partook, we would be cast our of the garden and cut off from the presence of the Eloheim. Nevertheless, there was in the garden an evil one, one of the satans, who sought our destruction, that we might be miserable like unto himself. In process of time, he led the women, beguiling them until they partook of the fruit of the forbidden tree. Upon learning this, we counseled together, knowing that with the coming of the Eloheim, the women would be cast out of the garden and our purpose in coming here would be frustrated. After much consultation, it was agreed that we should all partake of the fruit, that together we might undergo that which awaited our little colony. We partook and feeling for the first time the shame of our nakedness, we made aprons of fig leaves which we tied about our loins, for the Light of the Eloheim had departed from us and we were left exposed in the midst of the garden of Jehovah.

4. When the Eloheim entered the garden, it seemed as though the brightness of their coming would consume everything; in fear we hid among the trees, but the Eloheim called us forth to face the consequences of our transgression. The Satan was cursed to crawl upon his belly, eating dust all the days of his life. To our horror, as we watched, his arms and legs withered away and upon his belly he crawled from our presence. The women were placed under sorrow--their priesthood was taken from them and they were subjected to their husbands for the means of salvation. Nevertheless, they were promised joy in begetting children and eventual redemption to their former glory. The men, too, were placed under sorrow where we were commanded to till the ground, which would no more yield to us freely as had the garden, until we died, for surely death is the fruit of breaking the commandments of the Eloheim.

5. Before we were cast forth from the garden, the Eloheim taught us many sacred things, that we might be prepared as masons to build up a Zion to the Eloheim in the midst of this world of Sorrow. The Lord Jehovah gave unto us, also, coats of skins which we were to wear as long as we remained in this world of wickedness and sin. Thus attired, we were driven from the garden while cherubim and a flaming sword were placed to prevent our reentry until we had justified our Fall to mortality. In the midst of the garden, said the Eloheim, stood a tree which would overcome the powers of death, but we could not partake of it until we had proven ourselves faithful to the commission of the Eloheim.


1. LEAVING the garden, we traveled as we were led until we arrived at a plain which we called Olaha Shinehah, because here we hoped to find again the Light which we had lost. Here we began to build homes and a community unto our God and here I built an altar upon which to offer sacrifices unto the Most High. Nevertheless, we did not understand the meaning of these sacrifices, but we did all things according to the directions which we had received in the garden and we were obedient unto Jehovah in all things, even as He had commanded us.

2. Being led by the Spirit of the Eloheim, I ascended also a mountain which rose beside the plain of Olaha Shinehah from which I could overlook all the regions round about and I blessed the land, dedicating it unto Jehovah, and I called the land Cainan because Jehovah had given it to us.

3. Upon this mountain, which we called Ramiah, I discovered a cave of many rooms. Here I placed the sacred things which we had brought out of the garden--an apron of fig leaves, a branch from a tree whose blossoms never withered and a stone of many colors which radiated Light in the darkness. these I placed in a stone box, which we called the Testimony, and above it we carved representations of the cherubim which guard the entrance to the garden. The cave we called the Cave of Treasures, and here we resorted often to commune with Jehovah and to reenact those sacred rites which the Eloheim had taught us in the garden.


1. THUS did our lives progress from day to day as we tilled the ground, built homes, made clothing and other implements for our comfort and pleasure, and learned to live in this new world to which Jehovah had led us.

2. After many days, when we were at the altar, offering up a lamb according to the pattern which had been shown us, an angel of Jehovah appeared unto me saying, Why dost thou offer sacrifices unto Jehovah? To this question I replied, I know not, save Jehovah commanded me. then the angel spake unto me saying, This sacrifice is in the similitude of the Only Begotten of the Father who is full of grace and truth. Wherefore, thou shalt do all that thou doest in the name of the son and thou shalt repent and call upon the Eloheim in the name of the son for evermore.

3. Then the Spirit of Jehovah fell upon me, saying, I am the Only Begotten of the Father from the beginning, henceforth and forever. Behold, even as thou hast fallen, thou mayest be redeemed, and all mankind, even as many as will, may be brought into my presence through the power of mine atonement, for surely I shall walk upon the earth in the flesh, and give my life as a ransom for all who will come unto me.

4. The did my soul rise up within me, and I blessed that God who gave me life, calling upon Him in the name of His Only Begotten. And the Spirit of Jehovah was in me so that I stood forth and prophesied concerning that which should befall my posterity unto the latest generation. Yea, goo and evil were laid out before me, so that I saw the come upon the earth, and I saw also the redemption of all men and the final consumption when darkness will be swept away forever. And I was led to cry out in the Spirit of Jehovah, Behold, now I know that this same priesthood and Order which are in the beginning of the world shall be in the end of the world also. For I have seen the Holy Order of the Eloheim upon the earth in the end of time when the remnant shall come forth to bear off the kingdom. Yea, Zion have I seen spreading abroad her dominion among the pure in heart, that the heavens and the earth might be one again. Then will the sons of men enter again the garden of delights; they will bathe in the Eternal Sea and they will dwell in the presence of the Eloheim. Then will all things become one, for the divisions between heaven and earth will cease and the Christ will reign upon the earth for a thousand years. I saw also that the earth should be redeemed and should enter into rest and, feeling within myself the power of that redemption, I cried out, saying, Blessed be the name of our God, for because of our transgression, our eyes are opened, and in this life we shall know the joy of our redemption, for in the flesh we shall see and know the Eloheim.

5. Then Eve, also, seeing and hearing what was done, being filled with the Spirit of gladness, exclaimed, Were it not for our transgression, we never should have had seed, and never should have known good and evil nor the joy of our redemption nor the eternal life which God giveth unto all the obedient.

6. Hearing these words, the entire congregation arose as one man and burst forth in blessing the name of the Eloheim, singing and shouting praises unto the Name of Names. Then the voice of the Eloheim came unto me saying, Behold, I am Jehovah thine Eloheim. I made the word and created the spirits of all men before the world was formed. Yea, I am the Lord of spirits, the Ruler over all who will come upon the earth. Behold, Adam, if thou wilt turn unto me, hearken unto my voice. Believe on my name and upon the name of mine Only Begotten. Repent of all thy transgressions and be baptized, even in water, in the name of mine Only Begotten Son, which is Jesus Christ, the only name which shall be given under heaven whereby salvation shall come unto the children of men, and thou shalt receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. Even so will I give this gift unto everyone who cometh unto me and obeyeth mine ordinances. And if thou wilt let this gift grow in thee, the day will come when thou shalt ask all things in His name, and whatsoever thou shalt ask, it shall be given thee. This promise, also, I give through thee unto all who will abide the conditions thereof.

7. Then I ventured to speak, even unto Jehovah, saying, Why is it that men must repent and baptized in water?

8. And the word of Jehovah came unto me saying, Behold, I have forgiven thee thy transgression in the garden of Eden. Nevertheless, inasmuch as thy children are conceived in sin, even so, when they begin to grow up, sin conceiveth in their hearts, and they taste the bitter that they may know to prize the good. And it is given unto them to know food from evil, whereby they are made agents unto themselves. Behold, I gave unto you laws when I placed you in the garden, but ye transgressed those holy commandments and for so doing have been cast out. Nevertheless, I have given unto you another law and commandment, even at this time; wherefore, teach it unto your children that all men everywhere must repent, or they can in nowise inherit the kingdom of God, for no unclean thing can enter into His kingdom, neither can an unclean man dwell in His presence. Behold, is not Man of Holiness my name? And mine Only Begotten, even he is the Son of Man, Jesus Christ, the Righteous Judge, who shall come in the meridian of time to save all those who will believe on His name, keep His commandments and receive His ordinances within themselves. Therefore do I give unto you a commandment to teach these things freely unto your children, showing them that as the Fall hath come upon you by reason of your transgression, so doth every man fall within himself through failure to keep the holy commandments. Even so, as death hath come into the world through your Fall, in the like manner doth every man perpetuate that spiritual death through his own transgressions. Therefore, inasmuch as ye are born into the world of water and blood and the spirit which I have made, and so become of dust a living soul, even so ye must be born again into the kingdom of heaven by water and the Spirit, being cleansed by blood, even the blood of mine Only Begotten, that ye, being sanctified from all sin, may enjoy the words of eternal life in this world and eternal life in the world to come, even immortal glory. Yea, by the water ye keep the commandment; by the Spirit ye are justified, and by the blood ye are sanctified. Therefore, it is given to abide in you, even the record of heaven which is the Comforter which testifieth of the peaceable things of immortal glory, the truth of all things, that which quickeneth all things, sustaineth them in life, for the Comforter knoweth all things and hath all power according to wisdom, mercy, truth, justice, and judgment. And now, behold, I say unto thee, This is the plan of salvation unto all men through the blood of mine Only Begotten who shall come in the meridian of time. and behold, all things have their likeness and all things are created or made to bear record of me, both things which are spiritual, things which are in the heavens above, things which are on the earth, things which are in the earth and things which are under the earth. Yea, all things, both above and beneath, bear record of me and call upon men to repent and come unto me, their Creator, that they may be saved.

9. Then I cried out unto Jehovah in the ecstasies of my soul, and being filled with Light, I led my people to the water's edge where we knelt in prayer unto the Eloheim. Many hours we prayed and praised the Eloheim in song and dance and ecstatic utterances until the Light which surrounded us burst into flame and a glorious being stood before us, clothed in Light, who uttered eternal words which filled our souls with power. Calling me by name, he led me into the water, but the water was to me a sea of Light in which I was immersed into unity with the Son of the Most High and, as I came forth from the water, cloven tongues of fire fell upon me and I was filled with the Light of Eternity. I felt the presence of the Eloheim and I knew that I was returning to that holy state whence I had fallen. In ecstasy, I called forth the others, who one by one entered the water to receive the blessings. All that day and all the night, we rejoiced in the Light, for it was all day to us as we were in the presence of the Eloheim where darkness never cometh. And when we returned to our homes, we ceased not to call upon Jehovah and to offer up our praises for the Light and the newness of Life which had entered into us.


1. EIGHT times since our leaving the garden had the moon become new, when a son was born unto my wife Lilith. We all rejoiced at this appearing and on the eighth day when I dedicated him unto Jehovah, I called him Cain, For, said I, we have gotten a man from Jehovah. nevertheless, the countenance of my son Cain was not like unto ours, for he seemed to have the mark of the satans upon him, although this was not clearly visible to the outward eye. But I rejoiced in my son and sought to raise him up unto Jehovah.

2. Other sons and daughters also bean to be born unto us, and soon the laughter and cries of children filled our community. As our children grew, however, we saw in them the signs of sin. This was a great sorrow unto us, for our nature was to do good. Wherefore, taking Eve, my wife, I ascended to the Cave of Treasures, where we worshipped before Jehovah, calling upon His holy name, and even the Names of Names, that He should reveal Himself unto us.

3. And Jehovah spake unto me saying, Inasmuch as your children are conceived in sin, even so doth sin conceive in their hearts, and they shall know the bitter that they may know to prize the sweet. Nevertheless, if they will receive me, even Jesus Christ, as their Savior, they will be born again, even as thou, that they may be filled with Light. Behold, Adam, for this purpose didst thou come forth from the garden, that thou mightest raise up a righteous posterity, an holy seed unto my name. Then did Eve rejoice and was led again to exclaim, Were it not for our transgression, we never should have known the joy of redemption. And we rejoiced together before the Lord.


1. FOUR years after the birth of Cain, a son was born unto my Eve, a son whom we named Abel, for, said I, We see in our children the transitoriness of life and the power of sin and depravity. Nevertheless, this son Abel was a source of joy unto us, for he was filled with the Love of the Eloheim and true to the dedication wherewith we did consecrate him unto Jehovah. After eight years, he was baptized and entered into the covenant, in which thing we did rejoice, for we knew that even in his youth he had been born of the Eloheim. From that time, the gifts of the Spirit were manifested in him and he did begin to minister in the power of the word unto his brethren and sisters. Nevertheless, many of them rejected his words and they did revile him, laughing him to scorn. But Abel went on in the integrity of his soul, bearing witness to the truth, and gathering into the Church of the Anointed all those who would receive the word of the Eloheim, repent of their sins, and come unto the Fathers to be baptized, that their sins might be remitted by the power of the blood of Christ, for as yet none of our children had received the holy priesthood.

2. But when Abel had reached the age of twelve years, he was received into the Holy Order of the Eloheim, and at the age of fourteen, the priesthood of Elias was conferred upon hi, that he might begin to serve the people in the authority of the Most High. Two years later, he was ordained a priest and began to assist at the sacrifices.

3. From his childhood, Abel spent much time with the animals which had become attached to our community. He was gifted in working with them, understanding and caring for their needs, for he could communicate with them better than the remainder of the people whose ears had been closed to the tongue of the animals when we had left the garden. In Abel, however, this gift remained to a great degree; even the wild beasts of the field who feared us, loved Abel and would frolic with him when he was alone. Often we marveled at this evidence that the Light of the Creator had not completely departed from us and our children.

4. Abel continued to grow from grace to grace; he was a joy to all of us who had come out from the garden, and others of our children began to follow his example, turning unto the Holy Order of God and growing in the Light of the Anointed. Often, they would ascend together to the altar which we had placed at the entrance to the Cave of Treasures to offer sacrifices unto Jehovah Eloheim and to worship in His praise. We rejoiced in the growth of another generation dedicated to the service of almighty God and carrying forth the traditions which we had brought forth from the garden.

5. The remainder of our children followed Cain who had entered into a covenant with Satan whereby he had become Perdition, the Master of the Lie, that great secret by which they murder and commit all manner of abominations to get unlawful gain. These had so perverted the truth as to offer sacrifices unto Jehovah in the name of Satan, taking the fruit of the ground and offering it up in an unholy parody of the holy ordinance. But the Eloheim would receive no such offerings and the souls of Cain's people became ever more corrupt and ever more chained to the powers of darkness and evil. In their wickedness, they envied the joy of Abel and the children of Light, turning their hatred against them because they lived at peace with the Eloheim and all the holy angels.

6. Now, in his twenty-ninth year, Abel received that More Sure Word of Prophecy whereby he stood approved of the Eloheim, being received into the Order of the Ancients, the Fellowship of the Fathers, that he might officiate in the Cave of Treasures, for he was numbered among the Eloheim, having received of the fullness of the Father through the grace of his Only Begotten. This was a time of great joy to us, as we contemplated the growth of Zion among our children and the expansion of the Holy Order of the Eloheim. When we considered Cain and his brethren, however, our hearts were filled with sorrow, for they were lost in depravity and wickedness of every kind which the human heart could create or Satan inspire.

7. Our sorrow reached its nadir in the sixtieth year after our departure from the garden. On a certain day, Abel and all his brethren, our children who followed the Way of the Anointed, gathered before the Cave of Treasures to offer sacrifices and rejoice in the mercies of Jehovah. Abel, himself, officiated at the altar, then entered into the Holy of Holies to pray before the Testimony, where the Presence of Jehovah dwelleth between the cherubim. During this solemn time, while all knelt in silent meditation, the air was suddenly rent by savage yells, as Cain and his wicked brethren descended upon the worshipers, their heads shaven and their faces painted in the image of darkness. Brandishing weapons of horror, they fell upon the worshipers, murdering them as their prayers ascended unto heaven, spilling their innocent blood upon the ground, a silent witness to the utter depravity of the sons of Perdition. Cain, himself, rushed into the Holy of Holies, polluting that sacred ground by his very presence, and fell upon Abel as he ministered before the Testimony, shedding his innocent blood before the cherubim.

8. Then did the anger of Jehovah arise, and he spake from between the cherubim. What hast thou done? He demanded. Why doth thy brother's blood cry from under the altar against thee? Behold, is not his blood upon thy flesh, a mark which shall not be eradicated until the end of time? Thou wicked Cain, thou art Perdition and thy deeds shall follow thee for from thee shall flow murder and bloodshed, wars and contentions, until the earth shall hide her face from the wickedness and pollution of mankind. Depart from before my face, for thine existence is a pollution to the sanctity of this spot. Nevertheless, no man shall slay thee, for thou shalt live to see the full measure flowing from thine iniquity, until the final destruction of the darkness of this world. Then a horror of darkness fell upon Cain, so that he fled from the cave like a madman, fleeing the presence of Jehovah, and his brethren in iniquity followed him unto a land east of Eden which they called the land of Nod, for, said Cain, I have fled from the face of the Lord.

9. When our children returned not from the Cave of Treasures, we ascended the mountain, seeking our loved ones, our heirs in the Covenant. On that holy spot where we had found such joy and happiness in the Lord, we were met with a scene of total devastation. Every one of those who had been true to the Covenant lay upon the ground, their blood spattered upon all the holy instruments, staining even the altar of the Eloheim. Our cries rent the heavens as we felt the anguish of a fallen world encompassing us, drawing us down into the blackness of despair.

10. How long we lay in the horror of loss, we knew not, but slowly Light dawned upon our weary souls and the voice of the Eloheim spake peace unto us. Lift up your heads and rejoice, declared the word of Jehovah, for these have died in their innocence, being sanctified by the blood of mine Only Begotten, and they rest this day in Paradise, the first of your children to enter into my rest. Behold, even as your children have been darkened by the power of darkness, even so shall my Son be lifted up upon the cross; yea, in the meridian of Time shall it come to pass, but out of defeat I create victory, saith the Lord Jehovah, for as your children have opened Paradise as the abode of the righteous, so shall my Son open the prison for the release of those who will accept his salvation. Behold, I am God over all and all thins submit to me, both Light and darkness, in mine own due time, saith the lord Jehovah. Then, the air was filled with singing and angels ministered to us until our souls rejoiced in the glory of the Highest and we were able to rise up and bury our dead unto Jehovah. Returning to our lonely homes, we mourned our dead but our mourning was swallowed up in the victory of Jesus Christ over death, for we had seen the power of the resurrection over the cross and we understood the cross as the way of Life.

11. Thus we walked in Light, but Cain and his brethren walked in darkness and anguish of soul. And Cain wrestled within himself, for the voice of Jehovah continued to call unto him, Where is thy brother whose blood crieth unto me from the ground for vengeance? To which Cain replied, Am I my brother's keeper? Nevertheless, he knew that he was lost in darkness and his mind was blighted and he became a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth, forever fleeing his memories and the darkness which pursued him and grew within him. Amen.


1. AMONG our little ones who yet remained was our son Timnor who was blessed with great wisdom to understand the physical laws by which machines might be created and governed. Timnor's sister Ammah was also blessed with understanding, for she investigated the nature of life, unlocking the mysteries of life itself.

2. When Timnor was eighteen years of age, he took Ammah to wife, she being fifteen years. Nevertheless, although the Lord Jehovah had blessed these two greatly with wisdom and understanding concerning the secrets of His creation, they followed not after the ways of Jehovah their Eloheim, for they took glory unto themselves, acknowledging not the Source of their power in the heavens.

3. In the one hundredth year, Timnor and Ammah led a group of our children who, like themselves, worshipped the workmanship of their own hands and the power of their own minds, out of the Land of Cainan unto a valley northward which they denominated the Land of Haner, for, said they, here shall we throw off the ways of our Fathers and follow after our own wills.

4. The people of Haner prospered in the land, building mighty cities in which they dedicated themselves to the fulfillment of every physical desire, but their souls were empty because they did not know the Lord Jehovah nor did they call upon His holy name. Yea, Timnor built great engines with which to deface his Mother Earth, defiling her for his unholy purposes. With other machines of his contriving, his people flew through the air like birds and explored the depths of the lakes and rivers. He created also great instruments of destruction with which his people attacked the people of Cain, driving them into the mountains and dense forests, that they might take their land for an inheritance. Thus did the evils of private ownership of the land lead to war and destruction wherein one people would destroy another to inherit their land and their goods, and the God-given abilities of men were turned into instruments of death and destruction.

5. Ammah was not one whit behind her husband in creating wickedness, for she manipulated the very fountain of life, until she had created new forms of beings dedicated to evil and the destruction of mankind. From this time, sickness and disease began to spread among the sons of men, bringing sorrow and death upon them.

6. Our hearts were filled with sorrow as we watched the doings of Timnor and Ammah and their brethren, for they were led ever deeper into the depravity of a fallen world. Nevertheless, they came not near the Land of Cainan, nor were their abominations introduced among us, for we walked in the ways of the Eloheim and strove to raise our children in light and truth. We taught our children the commandments which we had been given by Jehovah in the Garden and led them in observing the times of worship and the fasts and feasts of Jehovah the Lord. Every seventh day on the first day of the week, we ascended the hill Ramiah to the Cave of Treasures where we worshipped before the face of Jehovah and instructed our children in the principles of His gospel.

7. Thus our days passed in quiet happiness except when we thought of Cain and Timnor and Ammah and their brethren who walked in darkness because they would not receive the Light. Thus we prayed unto Jehovah our Eloheim for mercy upon our children that a remnant might be preserved who would be true to the covenant which we had received. And the world of Jehovah came unto us saying, Behold, your seed shall stand until the end of the earth, for at the end of time a remnant will come forth from among your seed who will bear off the kingdom triumphant and establish my Zion, for the same Holy Order which existeth among you will exist among them at the end of the world. Then in vision I was the generations of our children stretching unto the end of time and I saw the remnant who should be preserved to prepare the world for the coming of the Lord in glory. Then I saw my people in their midst, for we rejoiced together in the grace of Jehovah through the merits of his Only Begotten Son that wickedness will be swept from the earth and the earth will become the abode of the Eloheim. Our souls expanded as we saw these glorious things and we rejoiced before the Lord Jehovah who is the Savior of His people, yea, even all those who put their trust in him. Amen.


1. AS our children grew to maturity and spread abroad throughout the plain of Olaha Shinehah, the people of Cain and the People of Timnor began to come in upon them, driving off their flocks and herds, stealing the produce of their gardens and fields and killing any who sought to prevent them. Behold, most of our children who remained in the land followed the teachings of their parents not to fight, even when attacked by their brethren who had gone astray and worshipped the Lie, or the workmanship of their own hands. Therefore, they applied unto us for relief, for neither the people of Cain nor the people of Timnor dare to come into the heart of the land to attack the Holy City where the Fathers dwelt.

2. When the supplications of our children came up before us, we ascended the Hill Tamiah unto the Cave of Treasures where we appeared before the mercy Seat to seek guidance of Jehovah our Eloheim. Yea, we let our hearts and minds flow together in one before Jehovah that we might part the veil to receive His word. And the word of Jehovah came unto us saying, Arise and take all your children who will follow you unto a land which I shall show you, a land of beauty, a land fair to behold, where ye will be blessed and multiplied and protected against the power of your enemies, for I will hedge up the way against them that they shall not discover you while ye remain in righteousness. Go to, now, and I shall go before you and I will be your rearward, and your children shall know that the power of Jehovah is mighty to save. Then we rejoiced before the Lord Jehovah and we descended the hill to bear this glad news unto our children.

3. Six times passed the moon through its phases while we prepared our people for this great journey, until the Day of Trumpets, the day which Jehovah had appointed, when all who would follow us had gathered together to the Holy City and were prepared to be led whithersoever Jehovah would guide us. Many of our children came not, being determined to fight for their homes and their goods, but we knew it was better to follow Jehovah into the wilderness than to violate the Law of Love in order to possess our property.

4. Many days we traveled through wild and virgin land until we came to a beautiful valley, and the presence of Jehovah ceased to go before us for His voice came unto us saying, This is the land which I have consecrated unto my people that they should dwell thereon in holiness. Therefore did we call the land Shulon because it was consecrated unto us by Jehovah. Then we worshipped the Lord Jehovah and praised the glory of His might who preserveth His people from the power of all their enemies.

5. In the one hundred and thirtieth year, a son was born unto us in Shulon, and we called his name Seth because he was appointed of the Eloheim to stand in the place of his brother Abel. And Seth grew up unto Jehovah, walking in the footsteps of Abel, his brother, and of his Fathers who taught the way of heaven. Moreover, his appearance was like unto that of his Fathers, for he could be distinguished from me only by his age.

6. Behold, Seth followed not after the ways of the fall, but walked in holiness from his youth, glorifying the name of Jehovah his God magnifying the Lord in his soul. Wherefore, Seth became a great preacher of righteousness, declaring the plan of redemption through Jesus Christ, the Only Begotten Son of God, and many of his brethren and sisters began to follow after him in observing the ways of the Lord Jehovah. Thus did the Holy Order of God begin to be raised up again among our children and the powers of the Eternal Priesthood were manifested in their midst. Wherefore, we rejoiced in the mercies of the Eloheim, in the evidence of their long-suffering and patience toward the children of men in leading them to the power of salvation and endless lives.


1. THE record of Corint the Scribe, which he wrote concerning the doings of his fathers from the time when they departed from the land of Cainan to build a great city in the land of Haner until Corint himself, hearing the preaching of my Father Noah, was converted unto the Lord Jehovah and came to dwell with the remnant of believers until he died firm in the faith of the Son of God. I, Shem, have appended this record of Corint to the Book of Generations of Adam, for it showeth the power of darkness upon the hearts of the children of men and the love of God toward His children, even when they are lost in iniquity.

2. I, Corint, am the son of Selah, the son of Arphaxed, the son of Gorun of the family of Lukas, the son of Timnor and Ammah who came forth from the Land of Cainan, the land of our First Fathers, because they chose not to live according to the Order of the Ancients. In this they were left free to follow the desires of their own hearts, although their course was evil in the sight of the Eloheim, for the Lord Jehovah hath made each man free to choose good or evil that by his own works he may be judged.

3. Thus Timnor and Ammah followed not in the righteous way of their Parents who had come out from the Garden, but built a great city of wickedness in which they did practice abominations of every kind, for they knew no law but that of their own creating and they sought only to serve themselves.

4. In the process of time, six sons were born unto Timnor and Ammah, even Teshuesh who was expert in all the ways of governing men, keeping them subject to his will, and he did become a king over the people; and Coriantumr who sought to know the meaning of existence, leading a group of the people in searching for the Unknown God, and they were called the Mysterfiers; and Gringos who followed in the ways of his father Timnor, for he was expert with every type of machine and created many marvelous works for the service of mankind; and Tranter who learned the ways of his mother Ammah, for he did manipulate the very nature of man and best to create new forms which God had not ordained; and Lukas who was a man learned in all the learning of his people, who traveled far abroad amongst all the children of Adam, learning of their ways and gathering their knowledge home to his people where he created a great center of learning to which multitudes came to inquire after the knowledge of Lukas; and the sixth son of Timnor and Ammah was Samos.

5. It came to pass, as the people of Haner continued in their wicked ways, that the judgments of the Eloheim began to fall upon them, for even in the second generation, their lives were cut short through the evils of their doings, so that their days were few and full of trouble. Nevertheless, except for the Mysterfiers, who were few in number, they turned not unto the Eloheim in their time of trouble, but unto the wisdom of their learned men. And in the seventieth year before the Great Dispersion, the people rose up in anger because of the plagues with which they were cursed, and took the king Teshuehs and slew him because he did not free them from he plagues, and they chose Seth the son of Lukas, a man known for his great wisdom to reign in his stead.

6. At that time, Abamah, the son of Teshuesh, who had become on of the Mysterfiers and had been chosen as their high priest, came forth and rebuked the people, for he climbed upon the great tower which was in the center of the City of Haner, and he cried with a loud voice, and his words were carried through their devices into every place among all the people. Wherefore, Abamah said unto them, Hear my words, O ye people of iniquity, for ye follow not in the ways of Eloheim of heaven, but the evil of your own doings hath brought your sufferings upon you. Yea, ye work those works which are forbidden because they bring only death and destruction, and ye boast in the greatness of your power, but you power is dust and ye would leave the whole earth desolate if the Lord God were not to intervene. But the Lord is over all, and He shall bring an end to all your works, for when your iniquity is full, the Lord will bring in a flood upon the earth which shall cover every abomination and wash the earth from all iniquity. Repent, therefore, and turn unto the Lord God of heaven and earth, that ye may not die but may live forever through the merits of His Son. Yea, for thus did our First Fathers teach, that the Son of the Eloheim should come into the world to redeem the people from their sins, and so did my master Coriantumr teach me, for he journeyed even to the Land of Shulon to sit at the feet of Adam, our First Father, to learn the Way of Salvation, and he did obtain a Priesthood, that the powers of salvation might be in the midst of this people. Therefore, repent, every on of you of your iniquities, and come forward to be baptized in the name of the Only Begotten Son of God for the remission of your sins that ye may receive the Gift of the Holy Ghost.

7. Nevertheless, the people were angry with Abamah because he boldly testified against their iniquities, and they would have slain him, but his disciples plucked him from the top of the tower and bore him away to a place of refuge. And Abamah came no more to testify among the people, but he instructed many disciples who bore the message of salvation throughout the land and many souls were added to the number of the believers.

8. Preeminent among the disciples of Abamh was Palai, the son of Samos, the son of Timnor and Ammah. This Palai became high priest of the Mysterfiers after the death of Abama. It was during his days that the Mysterfiers built their great temple in the city of Haner, for Palai came forth to minister among the people. Yea, he went even into the presence of the king Coram, son of Seth, the son of Lukas and denounced the iniquity of the people, for King Doram had declared a great festival at which he could be proclaimed god of the universe and his people the lord of creation. But Palai rebuked him saying, Thou abomination, thou shalt lie as one dead for twenty years, yet thou shalt know all that transpireth about thee and thy followers shall be unable to revive thee, that thou mayest serve as a witness of the judgments of God against this people. And for twenty years, King Coram lay as though he were dead and all their wise doctors could not revive him.

9. And there arose a division among the people as to whether Coram should be retained as King. Now the son of Coram was named Abel, and when he saw the judgments of the Eloheim upon his father, he repented of his wickedness which his father had taught him and went to Palai to become his disciple. And in process of time, Abel became high priest in the place of Palai, and he went to his father's court to teach the people the Way of Life. But there began to be a dissension among the people and Canaan, the son of Pharaxes, the son of Gringos, rose up against Abel and the Mysterfiers seeking their destruction. The forces of Canaan were great for many of the people delighted in wickedness, and it came to pass that twelve years before the Great Dispersion, Canaan did enter the palace of Coram and killed him upon his bed where he had lain for twenty years as though he were dead and Canaan had himself proclaimed king over all the land.

10. Then did Abel and his people flee into the mountains where they had prepared a city in the heart of the mount which they called Palai and there they did establish a society according to the pattern of the First Fathers as it was recorded in the book of Abamah, for they held all things common and dwelt together in love and peace, maintaining unity with the angels and glorifying the Eloheim. And because the people of Abel were faithful to the word of Jehovah and dwelt apart, they were spared when the Great Dispersion came upon the people.

11. For it came to pass in the days of Canaan the king, the wickedness of the people of Haner grew so great that every man was against his neighbor, lovers only of themselves, and even those of a man's own household would destroy him to get gain for their own pleasure. Wherefore, there began to be civil strife throughout the land and everything was in chaos. Then did the Eloheim raise up prophets in the midst of the people, even Abdim the son of Coriantumr, the son of Timnor and Ammah and Conan, the son of Peshar, the son of Lakan of the House of Morenah, and Nimrod, the son of King Canaan. Now the people were angry with these three because they did plainly denounce their sins; wherefore all the people, of whatever faction, sought to destroy them, but the power of the Eloheim preserved them through many dangers until they had delivered their message throughout the land. Then these three men of God were taken by the soldiers of the king and brought into his presence, who denounced them before all the people, for the vision of it was carried throughout his domain, and Abdim he slew with his own sword and Conan he consigned to the flames, all for the amusement of his people, but Nimrod he cast into prison because he was his own son and he would have persuaded him to renounce the Mysterfiers and take up his kingdom.

12. But behold, in that night, an angel stood by Nimrod as he prayed in the prison, who said unto him, Be of good courage, Nimrod, thou man of God, for this night shalt thou see the deliverance of the Eloheim, for I shall lead thee from this prison and from the top of the Hill Timnor thou shalt watch this whole palace turn to dust as a witness against King Canaan and his abominations. Then the angel, taking Nimrod by the hand, conveyed him to the top of the Hill Timnor which overlooked the City of Haner. And behold, a bright light shone from heaven, illuminating the whole palace of King Canaan, and a mighty noise from heaven shook the air, and where the palace had been there was only dust. Then the angel spake saying, Thus shall be the end of all who walk in the ways of darkness, and taking Nimrod by the hand, he carried him to the City of Palai where he became a disciple of Abel, learning from him the mysteries of the Ancients that he might enter into the life of the Eloheim. And when Abel died, Nimrod became high priest of the Mysterfiers, showing them the Way of Life and Salvation.

13. Nevertheless, King Canaan was absent from his palace when it was destroyed, for he was in a place where he resorted to celebrate because of the death of the prophets. And he repented not of his iniquity, neither did his people; wherefore, no man's life was safe, nor his possession. And it came to pass, in the tenth year of the reign of Canaan that a war broke out among the people, and marauding armies devastated the land. For two years, the people suffered under great desolations, as one army, then Anoght gained dominion over various parts of the land. At the end of two years, there was destruction everywhere, and the people began to flee into the wilderness to escape the wrath which had fallen upon them, until only a small number remained with King Canaan in the ruins of the City of Haner. And the only city which remained was the City of Palai, for the Lord Jehovah blessed the people of Abel that they prospered and remained at peace.

14. From this time, the people began to count their years before and after the Great Dispersion, for then were all things changed.


1. THE people of the City of Palai waxed great for the blessings of Jehovah were upon them; their pastors declared the word of the Eloheim and the disciples hearkened unto their teachers and lived according to the Holy Order of God. Yea, all the days of Nimrod were the Mysterfiers diligent to do all that their prophets had taught them, and they did spread abroad from the City of Palai, preaching the gospel of salvation through the name of Jesus Christ who should come, so that many of those who had been scattered in the Great Dispersion harkened to the word of the Eloheim, coming down in humility and contrition to be baptized in the name of Jesus, that they might receive the remission of their sins and the Gift of the Holy Ghost. Thus did the Mysterfiers become great and powerful, and great wealth flowed into the City of Palai.

2. But it came to pass that after the death of Nimrod, Aziz, the son of Hombre, the son of Corono of the House of Coriantumr, the son of Timnor and Ammah became High Priest of the Mysterfiers. Now Aziz was mighty in preaching and touching the hearts of the children of men, but he gloried in power and in riches; wherefore he led the people astray into priestcraft and idolatry. Yea, the more part of the people began to lust after the riches of men and to forsake the riches of eternity, for only a few remained humble, calling upon the name of Jehovah, and even these began to be persecuted by their haughty brethren because they were, the more part of them, the poor and downtrodden. For the people of Palai had forsaken the Holy Order of God and each possessed his own lands and goods so that there began again to be poor among the people.

3. Then did the Spirit of Jehovah fall upon Zildah, the daughter of Phanuel, the daughter of Mikal of the House of Phillias who dwelt in the City of Haner. And she did stand up to declare the iniquities of the people, entering even into the palace of Adam, the son of Toneros, the son of Salmon of the House of Teshuesh, the son of Timnor and Ammah who reigned in the City of Haner, crying repentance unto the people. But they laughed her to scorn, driving her from the palace. Then entered Zildah into the marketplace each day crying repentance to all who would hear. Few there were who hearkened unto her words, but these few met together often to read the holy scriptures and speak to one another of the hope of salvation through the grace of the Only Begotten Son of God.

4. Then stood up Zildah the Prophetess as the believers met together and spake unto them saying, Hear the work of the Lord, O ye who believe in His name; salvation cannot come unto you except ye are brought down in penitence, confessing your sins and forsaking them, that ye may enter the waters of baptism and be baptized with fire and the Holy Ghost. Verily I say unto you, these baptisms cannot come unto you except one among you be ordained unto this power, to minister salvation to the souls of men. Therefore, let my daughter Zildah go up to the Land of Shulon unto the First Fathers to receive from them a Priesthood which is eternal, entering into the Mysteries of the Ancients, that she may be redeemed from the Fall. Verily I say unto you, through the Fall came sin into the world, and through sin cometh death, but I shall send mine own Son after the manner of the flesh to be the messiah, for He shall come with healing in His wings, to overcome the power of the Fall, to offer Life to all mankind. Yea, he is the Light and the Life of the world, even the Eternal God, for in Him shall the fullness of the Godhead dwell bodily. Therefore, let my daughter Zildah go unto the Fathers to enter into the mysteries of the Messiah and receive His redeeming, saving power, saith the Lord God Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth. Amen.

5. Then did all the disciples rejoice in the word of the Eloheim and they spread abroad the message of grace and peace through Jesus Christ, for some began to hear the word and come down in the depths of Humility to be baptized for the remission of their sins. And Zildah chose Luia the sister of King Adam to be a pastor unto the people, for Luia was exemplary among the believers, excelling in wisdom and compassion and the understanding of the holy scriptures. Then departed Zildah from the land to go up to the Land of Shulon unto the First Fathers, to obtain a Priesthood for her people which should be pure and undefiled, a Priesthood with the power of sanctification and Eternal Lives.

6. And it came to pass after two years when King Adam died, that his sister Luia and her husband Noah were appointed to rule over the people of the City of Haner. Yea, Queen Luia and King Noah were devoted to the word of the Eloheim and they did govern their people in equity and truth. Under their government, the land began to be reunited and many of those who had been scattered in the Great Dispersion united again with the people of Haner. And they were taught in all the ways of the Eloheim and became a prosperous and righteous people before the Lord Jehovah. But the people of Palai went on in their iniquities, seeking gain for themselves, and they entered into an alliance with the people of Cain, and Cain, that Son of Darkness who had become Perdition, entered into the temple in the City of Palai where he ministered in them mysteries of darkness, showing himself to be god through satanic powers. And the people of Palai waxed greater and greater in iniquity, uniting in secret combinations for power.

7. It came to pass, ten years after her departure from the City of Haner that Zildah the Prophetess returned from the Land of Shulon bearing the Priesthood of the Fathers in behalf of her people. Then were the disciples glad, for the Lord ministered in their midst and they were raised up to commune with the General Assembly and Church of the Firstborn and to enter into heavenly places while yet in the flesh. For Zildah entered into the temple in the City of Haner which had been built by Palai and his disciples, and she did stand forth with Zueen Luia and King Noah before all the believers, sanctifying the temple to be the House of the Eloheim, cleansing and rededicating it after the Order of the Ancients. Then did the people rejoice in the grace of Jehovah who saveth His people, opening before them the Way of the Eloheim.

8. The blessings of the Eloheim rested upon Zildah the Prophetess and Queen Luia, for they did govern their people for many years, leading them in the Way of Righteousness. And it came to pass, that after many years, Father Seth and Father Enos did visit the people and bless them with the blessings of the Fathers, even the Ancients of Days. And all the People of Haner rejoiced together in the power of the Holy Ghost and glorified the name of the Eloheim.


1. IT came to pass after the passage of many years, that King Noah died, and he passed from the earth, firm in the faith of the Son of the Only Begotten of the Father who is full of grace and truth; wherefore, we know that he entered the Paradise of God to await that great day when the just shall rise to reign with him upon the earth according to the promises of the holy prophets. Zildah the Prophetess also died, but prior to her death, she called Nimrod the son of Agoria, the son of Honato of the House of Samos, the son of Timnor and Ammah to preside as Patriarch among the Mysterfiers. Nimrod was a righteous man who loved Jehovah, his Eloheim, and rejoiced in the Mysteries of the Ancients whereby the power of salvation is kindled in the souls of men. Wherefore, Nimrod did preach reformation among the people of Haner, continually calling them back to that pure order of life which had been taught by the Fathers from the beginning. Canaan, also, the son of Seth, the son of King Adam, who, with Zueen Luia, did rule the people of Haner, was a mighty preacher of righteousness, leading the people in the ways of the Eloheim.

2. Now, the people of Haner did wax mighty in power over the forces of the earth; wherefore, they did amass great wealth, even gold and silver and pearls and precious metals and gems of every kind. Nevertheless, they did not covet wealth for their own profit, but they did hold all things in common and did use their wealth to beautify their temples and give glory to the Eloheim. But the people of Palai, who had entered into covenant with Perdition, submitting to those oaths of secrecy whereby they might murder and commit all manner of iniquity to get gain, were desirous of obtaining the wealth of the people of Haner. Therefore, they did come down in a mighty army against the city to take the people into slavery and possess the fruits of their labors. But they understood not that the Lord Jehovah would protect his people, for king Canaan, having the gift of prophecy, foresaw the iniquity of the people of Palai; wherefore, he directed his people in erecting great barriers of power around the city of Haner, so that none could pass into the city without the consent of the inhabitants thereof. Neither could any missile penetrate the forces which surrounded the city.

3. Thus were the people of Palai amazed, when they came upon the city of Haner, for all their devices could do no harm to the inhabitants of the city who remained secure behind their fortifications. Nevertheless, the people of Palai were expert in many devices, and there was one among them, even Leboa the daughter of Tamar, the daughter of Rachel of the House of Onesima, who devised a sword of light which penetrated the wall of defense around the city of Haner and began to drain the power from the wall. When the people of Haner saw this, they were in great consternation, but Queen Luia stood up in the midst of the people, and notwithstanding she was bowed down with age, she exhorted them to faith in the Lord Jehovah who would preserve his people from the wicked ones. Then united all the people in fasting and prayer, and King Canaan did enter with Nimrod the High Priest into the Holy of Holies where they did pray unto the Eloheim; yea, even from three days were they offering up their prayer while the people prayed without in the temple.

4. And on the third day, when they emerged from the Holy of Holies, Nimrod the High Priest rose up before all the people and exclaimed, Behold, this day shall ye see the salvation of the Eloheim, for they shall come forth in power against the servants of darkness, and all people shall know that Jehovah, the Lord of All, is El Shaddai, whose sword is mightier than all the weapons of men. Trust in the Eloheim; know that they forsake not those who walk in the Way, for in all things, the Eloheim shall be with you until ye rest in their bosoms at the end of time. Then Nimrod and Canaan and Luia and all the people stood with their arms raised to heaven, and from their hands flashed streams of fire. And where the wall surrounding their city had almost disappeared, another wall arose in its place, reaching even unto heaven and the weapons of the sons of darkness could not penetrate it nor weaken it, for the power of the Eloheim was therein, and the power of Light is greater than the force of darkness forever.

5. Then caused the Lord Jehovah to fall upon the people of Palai a plague, and they were sore discomforted, for their priest could do nothing to alleviate the plague. Wherefore, the army of Palai dispersed in confusion and when they returned to their city, they overthrew Coran the son of Lamech who reigned over the secret combination, but they ceased not from their iniquities, for they continued to serve idol gods and powers of darkness, consorting with evil spirits and devils and seeking power over the Light.

6. But the people of Haner, when they saw how the Lord Jehovah delivered them, observed a great period of rejoicing, for they did sing and dance and feast before the Eloheim for seven days, rejoicing in the saving power of El Shaddai whose power of their God, to look upon the great wall which he had erected about their city and to retell the tales of His deliverance.

7. Now, shortly after the defeat of the people of Palai, Queen Luia died, rejoicing in her salvation, for she had seen her Savior and received from Him the promise of Eternal Lives. And King Canaan with the High Priest Nimrod continued to lead the people in righteousness. And they did dwell in peace, for all the lands round about had heard how the Lord had discomforted the army of Palai, and they said one to another, Let us go not up against the people of Haner, for the Gods of that people are mighty who protect them against all powers which come against. And many in the land round about joined themselves to the people of Haner and the land prospered and the people dwelt in joy and the powers of heaven. And many of the disciples journeyed up to the land of Shulon to commune with the Ancients, entering into the mysteries of the Church of the Firstborn and returning to bless the people of Haner with the powers of heaven.


1. IT came to pass that ten years passed away after the defeat of the armies of the Land of Palai by the force of El Shaddai, and people of the Land of Haner began to forget the salvation of their God, for they began to be caught up again in the ways of the world, seeking after riches and gain for themselves; nevertheless, they followed not after the ways of the evil combination whereby they murder and steal to obtain for themselves the labors of others men's hands. But the people of Haner did seek to excel in the goods of the world, each striving to possess that which was above his neighbor. Even in the church of Christ which had been established throughout the land, the spirit of possessiveness and the worship of riches took hold of the hearts and minds of the people, such that many of them worshipped the Lord God with their mouths, but their hearts were far from Him and they established their own ways in place of the Holy Law.

2. But in the tenth year, on the first day of the Festival of the Victory, when multitudes were gathered in the City of Haner to celebrate the destruction of the armies of Palai and the salvation of the city, it came to pass the High Priest Nimrod did stand forth in the midst of the people on the steps of the temple and call upon them to repent and return to the ways of the Lord Jehovah. And these are the words which he spake unto them.

3. My people, Ye know that on this day, ten years past, the power of the Highest was manifested in the salvation of our city from the powers of darkness which had come against it with the armies of Palai. Yea, that great city of Palai which was built as a refuge for the believers in the True God and that Ancient Order which we have received from our first Parents hath become the abode of devils and the evil forces even now conspire therein to destroy all who follow after the Light. But the power of El Shaddai is greater than all the cunning of the forces of darkness and they cannot prevail over us while we remain firm in the covenant of the Eloheim.

4. Nevertheless, O my people, a great danger lieth before this people who have been so highly favored of the Lord Jehovah, for just as the holiest of cities, Palai, hath become the abode of devils, so may any and every man fall into the pits of darkness if he cleaveth to unto the word of the Eloheim. Even so hath darkness begun to invade this land, for many of you follow after riches rather than after the power of Elyon El, the Savior of His people. Ye love to be seen in the assemblies of the righteous, but your hearts are set upon your wealth ad ye spurn those who have not. Yea, ye say that they are sinners because the Lord hath not blessed them with the same abundance as ye have. ye see not that the Eloheim hath made you stewards over what hath been placed in your hands that ye might use it to bless the Lord of Spirits.

5. Verily I ask of you, my children, will the Lord Jehovah bless you in this thing? Nay, for ye show not that love which is the embodiment of the Eloheim, for where love is not evident, there the Spirit of the Eloheim abideth not. This whole people is in jeopardy because of the wickedness of love of self and worship of possessions which hath entered among you. think ye that the power of El Shaddai could be exercised in your behalf today as it was at the time of the Great Victory? Verily I say unto you, nay, for the power is not in you, and Lord of Glory cannot put that power into flawed vessels.

6. Think ye, my children, that ye can go your own ways and then turn to the powers of heaven in your need, and they will be able to work through you? Nay, but ye must return to that way of life which ye followed at the time of the Great Victory, or the powers of darkness will yet come against you and ye shall be overcome of them because your hearts are not right with Jehovah your Eloheim. When our parents first came into this land, they were a lost and fallen people, for they regarded not the might of El Shaddai but gloried in the might of their own arms, for they were mighty in perversions of the right way, but when some of their children repented and turned to the Lord of Salvation, they were accepted of Him and the way was opened before them that they might return unto Him. For the Lord Jehovah loveth all His children and He hath prepared the way for their repentance and salvation through the merits of His own Son who shall come to save the people were raised up in this land who could receive the powers of heaven and we were saved in the day of battle, the day of YHYH SABAOTH.

7. Turn you, my people; turn again unto the ways of Jehovah, that ye may again be a delightsome people before Him, for the powers of heaven have dwindled in you until your mortal souls are in danger of perishing, your nation destroyed, and your spirits suffering the fires of hell because of your transgressions. Turn you unto Jehovah, your Eloheim and put far from you the love of riches and the trampling of your fellowman. Renew in you that Holy Order which our First Parents established among themselves from the time when they were in the Garden unto this day, that Holy Order which is followed by holy men who walk in the Way and shall be unto the end. consecrate your substance unto the Lord that there may be neither rich nor poor among you. Be united with your brethren that your hearts and minds may be one, that they may be one with the Anointed, that having put on His mind, ye may see as ye are seen and know as ye are known. Dwell in righteousness, walking in the holy Law, that the Eloheim may be in your midst, that ye may not be destroyed in the day of tribulation.

8. Yea, my people, come unto the feast of Jehovah, for he hath prepared a feast of fat things for those who abide in His covenant. Know ye that the day of judgment is at hand, when He shall separate His wheat from the tares, and those whose hearts are not found in the service of the Highest shall be known. Repent, and come unto the son, renewing in your souls the Light of His salvation, that ye may not be lost at that day. Amen.

9. The power of the words of the High Priest Nimrod pierced the hearts of many in the assembly and there was a great reformation throughout all the land of Haner, for the word was carried throughout the land and the priests and teachers did exhort the Church in every quarter according to the words of Nimrod, that there might be a great renewal in the covenant. And I will show you hereafter that all the words of Nimrod, that mighty man of the Eloheim, were fulfilled, for there soon came a great day of judgment upon the people, and those who had placed their faith in the God of heaven were preserved while those who continued in the corruption of their own minds were subject to the dark forces which came against them, and the power of the Eloheim was made manifest for all to see. Amen.


1. IT came to pass that Nimrod the son of Agoria, the high Priest after the Holy Order of the Eloheim, waxed old and died, having spent his days in the service of Jehovah, having fought a good fight against the powers of darkness, leading his people to repentance and renewal in the Light. And it came to pass that Indrush, the son of Nimrod, was chosen High Priest in his stead, he having been a follower of righteousness from his youth, and having stood against the powers of evil and set an example worthy of imitation. the wife of Indrush was Lytish, the daughter of Canaan the king. She, too, was a devotee of the Holy Order of the Eloheim, full of the power of the Holy Ghost, a mighty preacher of righteousness.

2. Nine years after the death of Nimrod, King Canaan also passed into the world of spirits, having spent his days in the service of the Most High. Prior to his death, he had proclaimed Lytish and Indrush as the rulers of the people, and they did reign in righteousness in the name of Jehovah their Eloheim. Nevertheless, the more part of the people had become an hardhearted and a stiff-necked people, slow to hearken to the word of Jehovah. Yea, they did pervert the Way of the Eloheim, following after lasciviousness and every form of vice, even erecting idol gods, the workmanship of their own hands, to justify them in their iniquities. For there was no law governing what a person could believe, but Indrush and Lytish did labor with them in the power of the Eloheim, proclaiming the word of Jehovah and calling upon the people to repent and turn to the true and living Savior.

3. Nevertheless, the more part of the people rejected the words of their rulers and would not that they should reign over them, for they would have leaders after their own hearts. Therefore, they did conspire together to overthrow the government of the land, and they did enter into covenant with the people of the City of Palai, taking upon themselves that combination which had been handed down from Cain, whereby they might murder and steal and get gain. But Pagag, a servant of Indrush, was privy to their plans, for his brother was a leader of the insurrection, and Pagag was paid to kill the queen and king and was promised great rewards for so doing. Pagag, however, went to the king and disclosed all their secret plains as they had been made known to him, and the king and queen consulted with their counselors, what they should do in this matter.

4. Now, they could see that they were in dangerous circumstances, for the majority of the people had become enemies to righteousness. Therefore, Indrush, the High Priest, did enter into the Holy of Holies, and there did call upon the name of the Lord Jehovah, that he might know the will of the Eloheim in behalf of his people. And the voice of Jehovah spake unto him from between the cherubim, saying.

5. Hear me, O Indrush, mine anger is kindled against this people, for they are lost in iniquity and have sold their souls to evil. yea, their hearts are hardened against the truth. They trample upon the poor and think themselves happy because of their great riches, but all these things shall be taken from them in a day, for I shall remove all traces of them from the face of the earth. Take those who will stand in my covenant, saith the Lord, and depart from this place, for no many days hence, this city shall no longer encumber the earth. yea, gather thy people, those whose hearts are pure, and go unto the land of the Fathers, where I will bless you greatly, and when I shall lead you back unto this land, it shall be unto you again a land of promise which shall be choice unto you and your seed after you, for herein will the power of the holy gospel be poured out upon your seed in mighty strength. Behold, I am Jesus Christ, your Savior and your Redeemer; wherefore, follow me, my people, and ye shall not be destroyed, but ye shall inherit Eternal joy. Amen.

6. Then Indrush, the High Priest, gathered together the people of the Church, those whose hearts were firm in the covenant of Jehovah, and instructed them to gather together their families and their goods, those they could carry with them, and to prepare their vehicles to depart from the cursed city, for, saith he, soon falleth the anger of El Shaddai upon this place, and naught shall be left to bear witness thereof. On the fifteenth day of the First Month it came to pass that King Indrush and Queen Lytish led their people forth, and it was on the eve of the day which the evil combination had set for their destruction and the destruction of all those who would not join their abomination. And those evil ones, when they awoke to find the people of God fled from their midst, followed after them, but the power of El Shaddai stopped their host and turned them back, those who survived, unto their city again. And not many days thence, the judgments of Elyon El were poured out on the City of Haner, that where it had stood there remained naught to testify to its existence, and thus is the end of all those who enter into covenant with the powers of darkness to fight against the Holy Ones of Heaven.

The Book of the Giants

The Book of the Giants


From the Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. XI, Part 1, 1943, pp. 52-74. The transcriptions of the original texts have been omitted in this version.}

ISAAC DE BEAUSOBRE, the Huguenot author of one of the best books ever written on Manichsm (Histoire critique de Manich et du Manicheme, Amsterdam, 1734, 1739), was the one to make the only sound suggestions on the sources used by Mani for the compilation of his Book of the Giants:the Book of Enoch, and the Γραφὴ τω̑ν Γιγάντωνwhich Kenan, a great-grandson of Noah, discovered lying in a field (vol. i, 429, n. 6). The latter work has been identified by Alfaric (Les ritures Manichnnes, ii, 32) with a book whose contents are briefly indicated in the Decretum Gelasianum, p. 54, ll. 298-9 (ed. Dobschz): Liber de Ogia 1 nomine gigante qui post diluvium cum dracone ab hereticis pugnasse perhibetur apocryphus. Of the Book of Enoch, which was composed in the Hebrew language in the second century B.C., only an Ethiopic version, a few Greek fragments, and some excerpts made by the Byzantine chronographer Georgius Syncellus survive. 2 Mani, who could hardly read the Hebrew, must have used an Aramaic edition based directly on the Hebrew text (see below, hmyzd). He quotes mainly from the first part, which Georgius S. (p. 45, Fl.-R.) calls "the first book of Enoch on the Egrēgoroi", but shows himself acquainted also with the subsequent chapters. 3

It is noteworthy that Mani, who was brought up and spent most of his life in a province of the Persian empire, and whose mother belonged to a famous Parthian family, 4 did not make any use of the Iranian mythological tradition. There can no longer be any doubt that the Iranian names of Sām, Narīmān, etc., that appear in the Persian and Sogdian versions of the Book of the Giants, did not figure in the original edition, written by Mani in the Syriac language. 5 His disciples, who, it is well known, were in the habit of translating every word of a text (including the names of months, deities, etc.), seen fit also to "translate" the names of the giants. Thus Sāmis merely the translation of Ohya. However, they kept some of the original names (e.g. hmyzd), and adapted some others (e.g. Wrwgdd). 1

The story of the fallen angels and their giant sons needed little adaptation to be fitted into Mani's system. Of course, the heavenly origin of the Bnē-hā-Elōhīm 2 of Genesis vi, 2, 4, the Εγρήγοροι, of the Book of Enoch, did not square with Mani's conviction that no evil could come from good. Therefore he transformed them into "demons", namely those demons that when the world was being constructed had been imprisoned in the skies under the supervision of the Rex Honoris. They rebelled and were recaptured, but two hundred of them escaped to the earth. Mani also used the term Εγρήγοροι(preserved in Coptic, see texts L, M, P, S), or rather yrin Aramaic (once in a Middle Persian fragment, text D), but in Eastern sources they are mostly referred to as "demons" (Pers. dywn, Parth. dywnin T 6, Sogd. δywtin G, H 17, K 7, cytytin E, δywt ZY ykytin H. 16).

The puzzling clause of Genesis vi, 4: "The Nephilim were on the earth those days," was interpreted by Mani in this fashion: "when the Egrēgoroi descended, the animals, or proto-animals, were already in existence." Mani confused nəfīlīmwith nef(n) = ἔκτρωμα: see Ndeke, ZDMG., 43 (1889), 536, who rightly referred to the formula of abjuration (P.Gr., i, 1461) where the giants and the "abortions" are mentioned in one breath. In Manichn parlance, "abortion" (cf. also MPers. bgng, Sogd. pq) is synonymous with "animal".

We are therefore left with the Gibbōrīm, understood by Mani 3 as "giants". He probably used the equivalent Syriac word, gabbārē(gnbr), which his disciples translated as γίγαντες, al-ǰabābirahin Arabic, MPers. and Parthian kwn, Sogd. kwyt= kawit(Sing. qwy, kwy= kawi); cf. Sb.P.A.W., 1934, 30. In Sasanian times the words derived from the Avestan Kaviwere generally understood as "giant"; see Benveniste, MO., xxvi, 214, and Polotsky in Mir.Man., iii, 901. Thus MPers. Parth. kwis freely used in Manichn texts, e.g. of the Father of Light (M 40), of solar deities, of leading Manichns (both in Mir.Man., iii), also of the First Man and Ahriman 4 with reference to the First Battle (which therefore could have been described as a γιγαντομαχία). 5 However, the word kwis applied only to men and such beings as are imagined anthropomorphous. Where one would translate γίγαςas monster, the Iranian equivalent is mzn, Mazan. Thus the γίγας τη̑ς θαλάσσης(Kephalaia, 113 and notes), whose breathing operations are responsible for ebb and flow (cf. also Beruni, India, 203, 10-11), is called Mzn y (z)rhyg 1 in Middle Persian (M 99, V 22-3). Accordingly, MPers. mzn(adj. 2 and noun) and the related words, Pahl. mā̆zan, māzanīg, Sogd. mznyn δyw, Av. māzainya-, 3 should be rendered as "monster", or "gigantic, monstrous".

The Egrēgoroi and their giant progeny are fought and vanquished by four archangels: Raphael, Michael, Gabriel, and Istrael (Enoch, 10, 1; or: Uriel, or: Fanuel). In the Book of the Giantsthey are called "the four angels". They are frequently invoked by name in Manichn prayers (e.g. M 4 d 19, f 6; M 20), as Rwpyl, Myxyl, Gbryl, and Sryl( = Istrael).

There were no details about individual feats of the giants in the Book of Enoch. Mani filled the gap with the help of the above-mentioned Liber de Ogia nomine gigante. This Ogiashas been identified with Og of Bashan, 4 who according to late sources lived five thousand years and managed to survive the Deluge, thanks to his giant size. 5 But possibly stories that primarily appertained to Ogiaswere transferred to the better known Og, owing to the resemblance of their names. The name of Ogiasis why (wḥy) =Ohyā̆ (Oḥyā̆) in the Manichn fragments, and this spelling is presumably more correct than that of Ogias. Og(wg) indubitably would appear as wg(or: wg). Since Mani took whyfrom an Aramaic text, the ending of Ogiascannot be regarded as a Greek addition.

Ogias fought with a draco, and so did Ohya; his enemy was the Leviathan (text N). Ohya and his brother Ahya were the sons of hmyzd(text H), i.e. Στμιαζα̑ς, the chief of the Egrēgoroi in the Book of Enoch; hence, Στμιαζα̑ςis transcription of hm-(or ḥm?). In the Persian edition of the KawānOhya and Ahya are "translated" as Sāmand Narīmān, but the original names are kept in one passage (A 60). The translator did well to choose Sām-Krsāsp, both with regard to Ogias' longevity (Sām is one of the "Immortals") and to his fight with the dragon (Sām is a famous dragon-killer). In the Sogdian fragments the name of Sām is spelt Shm= Sāhm, as it is often in Pahlavi (Shm 1 beside Sm); Ṭabari has Shm, 2 cf. Christensen, Kayanides, p. 130. Sāhm's brother is Pāt-Sāhm. This name may have been invented by the Sogdian translator in order to keep the names of the brothers resembling each other. Narīmān was evidently not known in Sogdiana as a brother of Sām. According to the Book of the Giants, the main preoccupation of Sām-Sāhm was his quarrel the giant Māhawai, 3 the son of Virōgdād, who was one of the twenty ers of the Egrēgoroi.

The Book of the Giantswas published in not less than six or seven languages. From the original Syriac the Greek and Middle Persian versions were made. The Sogdian edition was probably derived from the Middle Persian, the Uygur from the Sogdian. There is no trace of a Parthian text. 4 The book may have existed in Coptic. The presence of names such as Sām and Narīmān in the Arabic version proves that it had been translated from the Middle Persian. To the few surviving fragments (texts A-G) I have added two excerpts, the more important of which (H) probably derives from a Syriac epitome of the book. Naturally, Manichn authors quoted the book frequently, but there is only one direct citation by a non-Manichn writer (text O). With the exception of text O, all the passages referring to the Book of the Giants(texts J-T) go back to Syriac writings (apparently). They are, therefore, to be treated as quotations from the Syriac edition. E.g. the Parthian text N is not the product of a Parthian writer who might have employed a Parthian version of the book, but was translated from a Syriac treatise whose author cited the Syriac text.

In their journey across Central Asia the stories of the Book of the Giantswere influenced by local traditions. Thus, the translation of Ohya as Sām had in its train the introduction of myths appertaining to that Iranian hero; this explains the "immortality" of Sā(h)m according to text I. The country of Aryān-Vēan= Airyana Vaēǰah, in text G (26), is a similar innovation. 5 The "Km mountains" in text B may reflect the "Mount Hermon". The progeny of the fallen angels was confined in thirty-six towns (text S). Owing to the introduction of the Mount Sumeru, this number was changed (in Sogdiana) to thirty-two(text G, 22): "the heaven of Indra ... is situated between the four peaks (cf. G 21) of the Meru, and consists of thirty-twocities of devas" (Eitel, Handb. Chinese Buddhism, 148, on Trayastriṃśat).


(bcd) = damaged letters, or uncertain readings.
[bcd] = suggested restorations of missing letters.
... = visible, but illegible letters.
[...] = estimated number of missing letters.
[ ] = a lacuna of undetermined extent.
(84)] = same, at the beginning of a line.
[(85 = same, at the end of a line. 1

In the translation parentheses are employed for explanatory remarks.


A. Middle-Persian

M 101, ato n, and M 911, fifteen fragments of a book, throughout small pieces from the centre of the pages. It has proved impossible, so far, to re-establish the original order of the pages. On purely technical grounds (size of the fragments, appearance of the margins, relative position of tears, stains, etc.), I at first assumed the following sequence: l-j-k-g-i-c-e-b-h-f-a-d-m-M 911-n. Being unable to estimate the cogency of these technical reasons now, because of the absence of any photographic material, I have decided to change the order of the first six fragments in the following way: c-j-l-k-g-i, in view of their contents. 2 Unfortunately we do not know in what order Mani had told the story of the giants. The task of finding the original order is made still more difficult by the fact that besides the Kawānthe book contained one or two more treatises, namely: (1) Parables referring to the Hearers, and possibly (2) a discourse on the Five Elements (here (1) = lines 160 to the end, and (2) = lines 112-159). The only fragments that undoubtedly belonged to the Kawānare c-j-l-k-g-i, while the position of the fragments e-b-h is particularly doubtful. It must be borne in mind that whole folios may be missing between apparently successive pages. In order to enable the reader to judge for himself, all the fragments (including the parables) are published here. The text is based on a copy I made nearly ten years ago (referred to in the notes as: Copy); a revision is not possible under the present circumstances.


(Frg. c) ... hard ... arrow ... bow, he that ... Sām said: "Blessed be ... had [he ?] seen this, he would not have died." Then Shahmīzād said to Sām, his [son]: "All that Māhawai ..., is spoilt (?)." Thereupon he said to ... "We are ... until (10) ... and ... (13) ... that are in (?) the fiery hell (?) ... As my father, Virōgdād, was ..." Shahmīzād said: "It is true what he says. He says one of thousands. 1 For one of thousands ....". Sām thereupon began ... Māhawai, too, in many places ... (20) until to that place he might escape (1) and ... 2

(Frg. j) ... Virōgdād ... Hōbābī 3 robbed Ahr ... 4 of -naxtag, 5 his wife. Thereupon the giants began to kill each other and [to abduct their wives]. The creatures, too, began to kill each other. 6 Sām ... before the sun, one hand in the air, the other (30) ... whatever he obtained, to his brother .... imprisoned ... (34) ... over Taxtag. 7 To the angels ... from heaven. Taxtag to ... Taxtag threw (or: was thrown) into the water. Finally (?) ... in his sleep Taxtag saw three signs, [one portending ...], one woe and flight, and one ... annihilation. Narīmān saw a gar[den full of] (40) trees in rows. Two hundred ... came out, the trees.... 8

(Frg. l) ... Enoch, 1 the apostle, ... [gave] a message to [the demons and their] children: To you ... not peace. 2 [The judgment on you is] that you shall be bound for the sins you have committed. 3 You shall see the destruction of your children. 4 ruling for a hundred and twenty 5 [years] .... (50) ... wild ass, ibex ... ram, goat (?), 6 gazelle, ... oryx, of each two hundred, a pair 7 ... the other wild beasts, birds, and animals and their wine [shall be] six thousand jugs ... irritation(?) 8 of water (?) ... and their oil shall be 9 ...

(Frg. k) ... father ... nuptials (?) ... until the completion of his ... in fighting ... (60) ... and in the nest(?) Ohya and Ahya ... he said to his brother: "get up and ... we will take what our father has ordered us to. The pledge we have given ... battle." And the giants ... together ... (67) "[Not the] ... of the lion, but the ... on his ... [Not the] ... of the rainbow, but the bow ... firm. Not the sharpness of the blade, [but] (70) the strength of the ox (?). 10 Not the ... eagle, but his wings. 11 Not the ... gold, but the brass that hammers 12 it. Not the proud [ruler], but the diadem on his [head. Not] the splendid cypress, but the ... of the mountain ...

(Frg. g) ... Not he that engages in quarrels, but he that is true in his speech. Not the evil fruit(?), but the poison in it. (80) [Not they that] are placed (?) 13 in the skies but the God [of all] worlds. Not the servant is proud, but [the lord] that is above him. Not one that is sent ..., but the man that sent him". 1 Thereupon Narīmān ... said ... (86) ... And (in) another place I saw those that were weeping for the ruin that had befallen them, and whose cries and laments rose up to heaven. (90) And also I saw another place [where there were] tyrants and rulers ... in great number, who had lived 2 in sin and evil deeds, when 3 ...

(Frg. i) 4 ... many ... were killed, four hundred thousand Righteous 5 ... with fire, naphtha, and brimstone 6 ... And the angels veiled 7 (or:covered, or:protected, or:moved out of sight) Enoch. Electae et auditrices(100) ... and ravished them. They chose beautiful [women], and demanded ... them in marriage. 8 Sordid ... (103) ... all ... carried off ... severally they were subjected to tasks and services. And they ... from each city ... and were, ordered to serve the ... The Mesenians [were directed] to prepare, the Khūzians 9 to sweep [and] (110) water, the Persians to ...

[On the Five Elements]

(Frg. e) (112) ... slaying ... righteous ... good deeds .... elements. The crown, the diadem, [the garland, and] the garment (of Light). The seven demons. Like a blacksmith [who] binds (or:shuts, fastens) and looses (or:opens, detaches) .... who from the seeds of .... and serves the king .... (120) ... offends ... when weeping ... with mercy ... hand ... (125) .....the Pious gave ...?... presents. Some buried the idols. The Jews did good and evil. Some make their god half demon, half god ... (130) killing ... the seven demons ... eye ...

(Frg. b) ... various colours that by ... and bile. If.... from the five elements. As if (it were) a means not to die, they fill themselves with food and drink. Their (140) garment is ... this corpse ... and not firm ... Its ground is not firm ... Like ... (146) ... imprisoned [in this corpse], in bones, nerves, 1 [flesh], veins, and skin, and entered herself [ = Āz] into it. Then he ( = Man) cries out, over 2 (?) sun and moon, the Just God's (150) two flames 3 ...?..., 4 over the elements, the trees and the animals. But God [Zrwān ?], in each epoch, 5 sends apostles: īt[īl, Zarathushtra,] Buddha, Christ, ...

(Frg. h) ... evil-intentioned ... from where ... he came. The Misguided recognize the five elements, [the five kinds of] trees, the five (kinds of) animals.

(160) ... On the Hearers

... we receive ... from Mani, the Lord, ... the Five Commandments to ... the Three Seals ... (164) ... living ... profession ... and wisdom ... moon. Rest from the power (or: deceit) ... own. And keep measured the mixture (?) ... trees and wells, in two ... (170) water, and fruit, milk, ... he should not offend his brother. The wise [Hearer] who like unto juniper [leaves 6 ...

(Frg. f) ... much profit. Like a farmer ... who sows seed .. in many 7 ... The Hearer who ... knowledge, is like unto a man that threw (the dish called) 8 frōag(180) [into] milk(?). It became hard, not ... The part that ruin ... at first heavy. Like ... first ... is honoured ... might shine ... (188) six days. The Hearer who gives alms (to the Elect), is like unto a poor (190) man that presents his daughter to the king; he reaches (a position of) great honour. 1 In the body of the Elect the (food given to to him as) alms is purified in the same manner as a ... that by fire and wind ... beautiful clothes on a clean body ... turn ...

(Frg. a) ... witness ... fruit ... (200) ... tree ... like firewood ... like a grain (?) ... radiance. The Hearer in [the world ?], (and) the alms within the Church, are like unto a ship [on the sea] 2 : the towing-line 3 (is) in the hand of [the tower] on shore, the sailor (210) is [on board the ship]. The sea is the world, the ship is [the ..., the ... is the ?al]ms, the tower is [the ...?], the towing-line (?) is the Wisdom. ... ... (214) ... The Hearer ... is like unto the branch (?) of a fruitless [tree] ... fruitless ... and the Hearers ... fruit that ... (220) pious deeds. [The Elect,] the Hearer, and Vahman, are like unto three brothers to whom some [possessions] were left by their father: a piece of land, ..., seed. They became partners ... they reap and ... The Hearer ... like ...

(Frg. d) ... an image (?) of the king, cast of gold ... (230) ... the king gave presents. The Hearer that copies a book, is like unto a sick man that gave his ... 4 to a ... man. The Hearer that gives [his] daughter to the church, 5 is like ... pledge, who ( = father ?) gave his son to ... learn ... to ... father, pledge ... (240) ... Hearer. Again, the Hearer ... is like .... stumble ... is purified. To ... the soul from the Church, is like unto the wife of the soldier (or: Roman) who ... infantrist, one shoe ... who, however, with a denarius ... was. The wind tore out one ... he was abashed 6 ... from the ground ... ground ...

(Frg. m) ... (250) ... sent ... The Hearer that makes one ..., is like unto [a compassionate mother] who had seven sons ... the enemy [killed] all ... The Hearer that ... piety ... (258) ... a well. One [on the shore of] the sea, one in the boat. (260) [He that is on] shore, tows(?) him that is [in the boat]. 1 He that is in the boat.... sea. Upwards to ... like ..?.. like a pearl ... diadem ...

(Frg. M911) ... Church. Like unto a man that ... fruit and flowers ... then they praise ... fruitful tree ... (270) ... [Like unto a man] that bought a piece of land. [On that] piece of land [there was] a well, [and in that well a bag] full of drachmas ... the king was filled with wonder ... share ... pledge ...

(Frg. n) ... numerous ... Hearer. At ... like unto a garment ... (280) like ... to the master ... like ... and a blacksmith. The goldsmith ... to honour, the blacksmith to ... one to ...

B. Uygur

LeCoq, Tk. Man., iii, 23. Bang, Musn, xliv, 13-17. Order of pages according to LeCoq (the phot. publ. by Bang seems to support LeCoq's opinion).

(First page) ... fire was going to come out. And [I saw] that the sun was at the point of rising, and that [his ?] centre (orḍu) without increasing (? amat?) above was going to start rolling. Then came a voice from the air above. Calling me, it spoke thus: "Oh son of Virōgdād, your affairs are lamentable (?). More than this you shall [not] see. Do not die now prematurely, but turn quickly back from here." And again, besides this (voice), I heard the voice of Enoch, the apostle, from the south, without, however, seeing him at all. Speaking my name very lovingly, he called. And downwards from ... then

(Second page) ...".. for the closed 2 door of the sun will open, the sun's light and heat will descend and set your wings alight. You will burn and die," said he. Having heard these words, I beat my wings and quickly flew down from the air. I looked back: Dawn had ...., with the light of the sun it had come to rise over the Km mountains. And again a voice came from above. Bringing the command of Enoch, the apostle, it said: "I call you, Virōgdād, ... I know ... his direction ... you ... you ... Now quickly ... people ... also ...

C. Sogdian

M 648. Small scrap from the centre of a page. Order of pages uncertain.

(First page) ... I shall see. Thereupon now S[āhm, the giant] was [very] angry, and laid hands on M[āhawai, the giant], with the intention: I shall ... and kill [you]. Then ... the other g[iants ...

(Second page) ... do not be afraid, for ... [Sā]hm, the giant, will want to [kill] you, but I shall not let him ... I myself shall damage ... Thereupon Māhawai, the g[iant], ... was satisfied ...

D. Middle-Persian

Published Sb.P.A.W., 1934, p. 29.

... outside ... and ... left .... read the dream we have seen. Thereupon Enoch thus .... and the trees that came out, those are the Egrēgoroi (yr), and the giants that came out of the women. And ..... over ... pulled out ... over ...

E. Sogdian

T iii 282. Order of pages uncertain.

(First page) ... [when] they saw the apostle, ... before the apostle ... those demons that were [timid], were very, very glad at seeing the apostle. All of them assembled before him. Also, of those that were tyrants and criminals, they were [worried] and much afraid. 1 Then ...

(Second page) ... not to ... Thereupon those powerful demons spoke thus to the pious apostle 2 : If .... by us any (further) sin [will] not [be committed ?], my lord, why ?.... you have ... and weighty injunction 3 ...

F. Middle-Persian

T ii D ii 164. Six fragmentary columns, from the middle of a page. Order of columns uncertain. Instead of A///B///CDEF, it might have been: BCDEFA, or even CDEF///A///B. 4

(Col. A) ... poverty ... [those who] harassed 1 the happiness of the Righteous, on that account they shall fall into eternal ruin and distress, into that Fire, the mother of all conflagrations and the foundation of all ruined tyrants. And when these sinful misbegotten sons 2 of ruin in those crevices and ....

(Col. B) ... you have not been better. In error you thought you would this false power eternally. 3 You ... all this iniquity ...

(Col. C) ... you that call to us with the voice of falsehood. Neither did we reveal ourselves on youraccount, so that youcould see us, nor thus .... ourselves through the praise and greatness that to us ... -given to you ..., but ...

(Col. D) ... sinners ..... is visible, where out of this fire your soul will be prepared (for the transfer) to eternal ruin (?). And as for you, sinful misbegotten sons of the Wrathful Self, 1 confounders of the true words of that Holy One, disturbers of the actions of Good Deed, aggressors upon Piety, ... -ers of the Living...., who their ...

(Col. E) ... and on brilliant wings they shall fly and soar further outside and above that Fire, and shall gaze into its depth and height. And those Righteous that will stand around it, outside and above, they themselves shall have power over that Great Fire, and over everything in it. ..... blaze .... souls that ...

(Col. F) ... they are purer and stronger [than the] Great Fire of Ruin that sets the worlds ablaze. They shall stand around it, outside and above, and splendour shall shine over them. Further outside and above it they shall fly 2 (?) after those souls that may try to escape from the Fire. And that ....

G. Sogdian

T ii. Two folios (one only publ. here; the other contains a wyδβγ cn pqṯ δywtyy"Discourse on the Nephīlīm-demons"). Head-lines: R: pn prβr 3 "... pronouncement", V: iv frytyt δn CC"The four angels with the two hundred [demons ... ".

... they took and imprisoned all the helpers that were in the heavens. And the angels themselves descended from the heaven to the earth. And (when) the two hundred demons saw those angels, they were much afraid and worried. They assumed the shape of men 3 and hid themselves. Thereupon the angels forcibly removed the men 4 from the demons, (10) laid them aside, and put watchers over them .... the giants .... were sons ... with each other in bodily union .... with each other self- .... and the .... that had been born to them, they forcibly removed them 5 from the demons. And they led one half of them (20) eastwards, and the other half westwards, on the skirts of four huge mountains, towards the foot of the Sumeru mountain, into thirty-two towns which the Living Spirit had prepared for them in the beginning. 6 And one calls (that place) Aryān-waian. And those men are (or: were) .... in the first arts and crafts. 7 (30) .... they made ... the angels ... and to the demons ... they went to fight. And those two hundred demons fought a hard battle with the [four angels], until [the angels used] fire, naphtha, and brimstone 8 ....


H. Sogdian

T ii S 20. Sogdian script. 9 Two folios. Contents similar to the "Kephalaia". Only about a quarter (I R i-17) publ. here. The following chapter has as headline: γt ny cnn β[cn]pδ[yh w]prs= Here begins: anai's 10 question the world. Init. rty tym ZK n[y] [cnn] mrmny rwγny pry[tkw wnkw ]prs ynk βcnpδ ZY kw ZKh mrtγmyt(skwnt) oo cknc pyδr zy mrch zγyrnt= And again anai asked the Light Apostle: this world where mankind lives, why does one call it birth-death (saṃsāra, Chin. shg-szŭ).

... and what they had seen in the heavens among the gods, and also what they had seen in hell, their native land, and furthermore what they had seen on earth,all that they began to teach (hendiadys) to the men. 3 To ahmīzād two(?) sons were borne by .... One of them he named "Ohya"; in Sogdian he is called "Sāhm, the giant". And again a second son [was born] to him. He named him "Ahya"; its Sogdian (equivalent) is "Pāt-Sāhm". As for the remaining giants, they were born to the other demons and Yakṣas. (Colophon) Completed: (the chapter on) "The Coming of the two hundred Demons".

I. Sogdian

M 500 n. Small fragment.

.... manliness, in powerful tyranny, he (or: you ?) shall not die". The giant Sāhm and his brother will live eternally. For in the whole world in power and strength, and in .... [they have no equal].


J. Middle-Persian

T ii D ii 120, V ii 1-5: and in the coming of the two hundred demons there are two paths: the hurting speech, and the hard labour; these (belong, or: lead) to hell.

K. Sogdian

M 363.

(First page) ... before ... they were. And all the ... 2 fulfilled their tasks lawfully. Now, they became excited and irritated for the following reason: namely, the two hundred demons came down to the sphere from the high heaven, and the ....

(Second page) ... in the world they became excited and irritated. For their life-lines and the connections of their Pneumatic Veins 3 are joined to sphere. (Colophon) Completed: the exposition of the three worlds. (Head-line) Here begins: the coming of Jesus and [his bringing] the religion to Adam and itil. ... you should care and ...

L. Coptic

Kephalaia, 17116-19: Earthquake and malice happened in the watchpost of the Great King of Honour, namely the Egrēgoroi who arose at the time when they were .... and there descended those who were sent to confound them.

M. Coptic

Kephalaia, 9224-31: Now attend and behold how the Great King of Honour who is ἔννοια, is in the third heaven. He is ... with the wrath ... and a rebellion ..., when malice and wrath arose in his camp, namely the Egrēgoroi of Heaven who in his watch-district (rebelled and) descended to the earth. They did all deeds of malice. They revealed the arts in the world, and the mysteries of heaven to the men. Rebellion and ruin came about on the earth ...

N. Parthian

M 35, lines 21-36. Fragment of a treatise entitled rdhng wyfrs= Commentary on (Mani's opus) Ārdahang. 4

And the story about the Great Fire: like unto (the way in which) the Fire, with powerful wrath, swallows this world and enjoys it; like unto (the way in which) this fire that is in the body, swallows the exterior fire that is (lit. comes) in fruit and food, and enjoys it. Again, like unto (the story in which) two brothers who found a treasure, and a pursuer lacerated each other, and they died; like unto (the fight in which) Ohya, Lewyātīn ( = Leviathan), and Raphael lacerated each other, and they vanished; like unto (the story in which) a lion cub, a calf in a wood (or: on a meadow), and a fox lacerated each other, [and they vanished, or: died]. Thus [the Great Fire swallows, etc.] both of the fires.... 1

M 740. Another copy of this text.

O. Arabic, from Middle-Persian? 2

Al-Ghaḍanfar (Abū Isḥāq Ibr. b. Muḥ. al-Tibrīzī, middle of thirteenth century), in Sachau's edition of Beruni's Āthār al-bāqiyah, Intr., p. xiv: The Book of the Giants, by Mani of Babylon, is filled with stories about these (antediluvian) giants, amongst whom Sām and Narīmān.

P. Coptic

Keph. 9323-28: On account of the malice and rebellion that had arisen in the watch-post of the Great King of Honour, namely the Egrēgoroi who from the heavens had descended to the earth,on their account the four angels received their orders: they bound the Egrēgoroi with eternal fetters in the prison of the Dark(?), their sons were destroyed upon the earth.

Q. Coptic

Manich. Psalm-book, ed. Allberry, 1427-9: The Righteous who were burnt in the fire, they endured. This multitude that were wiped out, four thousand .... Enoch also, the Sage, the transgressors being ...

R. Coptic

Man. Homil., ed. Polotsky, 6818-19: ... evil. 400,000 Righteous .... the years of Enoch ...

S. Coptic

Keph., 1171-9: Before the Egrēgoroi rebelled and descended from heaven, a prison had been built for them in the depth of the earth beneath the mountains. Before the sons of the giants were born who knew not Righteousness and Piety among themselves, thirty-six towns had been prepared and erected, so that the sons of the giants should live in them, they that come to beget .... who live a thousand years.

T. Parthian

291a. Order of pages unknown.

(First page) ... mirror ... image.... distributed. The men ... and Enoch was veiled ( = moved out of sight). 1 They took ... Afterwards, with donkey-goads .... slaves, 2 and waterless trees (?). Then ... and imprisoned the demons. And of them .... seven and twelve.

(Second page) ... three thousand two hundred and eighty- 3 ... the beginning of King Vitāsp. 4 .... in the palace he flamed forth (or: in the brilliant palace). And at night ..., then to the broken gate ... men ... physicians, merchants, farmers, ... at sea. ?... armoured he came out ...


U. Parthian

T ii D 58. From the end ( ... r t) of a hymn.

... gifts. A peaceful sovereign [was] King Vitāsp, [in Aryā]n-Waian 5 ; Wahman and Zarēl .... The sovereign's queen, Khudōs, 1 received the Faith, 2 the prince ... They have secured (a place in) the (heavenly) hall, and quietude for ever and ever ...

V. Sogdian

M 692. Small fragment. Order of pages uncertain.

(First page) ... because ... the House of the Gods, eternal joy, and good ..?.. 4 For so it is said: at that time ... Yima was ... in the world. And at the time of the new moon (?) .... the blessed denizens of the world 5 ... all assembled 6 ... all ...

(Second page) ... they offered five garlands in homage. 7 And Yima accepted those garlands ... And those ... that .... and great kingship ... was his. And on ... them .... And acclamations 8 ... And from that pious (?) ... he placed the garlands on his head ... the denizens of the world

1 Numerous variants (p. 126, Dobschz), e.g. de ogiae, de oggie, diogiae, diogine, diogenes, de ozia, de ugia, de ugica, de ogiga, de eugia, de uegia, de eugenia,etc. In Migne's Patrologia Latinathe text is in vol. 59, 162-3.
2 See Charles, The Book of Enoch, 2nd ed., 1912. For the Greek fragments (and Georgius S.) the edition by Flemming and Radermacher ( = Fl.-R.) is quoted here. For Mani's use of the Enoch literature see my papers in Sb.P.A.W., 1934, 27-32, and in ZDMG., 90, 2-4.
3 See below A 86-94, and compare G 19-21 with Enoch67, 4, and G 38 with Enoch17, 1; 21, 7; 54, 6; 67, 4-13. On chaps. 72 sqq. see Sb.P.A.W., 1934, 32.
4 Namely the Kamsarakan-k(mentioned often in the Armenian history of the fourth century) who claimed descent from the royal house of the Arsacids. This is clear from the Chinese-Manichn text that preceded the Fragment Pelliot, now printed in the TaishTripiṭaka as No. 2141a, vol. 54, p. 1280A, but hitherto untranslated: "He was born in the country of Sulin ( = Babylonia), in the royal abode of Bu-tiei( = Patī-g), by his wife Mu-i̯( = Maryam) of the family of Ki̯əm-s-gi̯ɒn( = Kamsar(a)gān)." The name Κάρασσα in the Byzantine formula of abjuration (Migne, Patr. Gr., i, 1468) may be corrupted from Kamsar-. Thus there is a grain of truth in the assertion in the K. al-Fihrist, 327, 31, that Mani's mother had belonged to the Arsacid house; ibid., Maryam(ed, marmaryam) is given as one of her names.It is not proposed to discuss the origin of Mani's father here.
5 I have abandoned my earlier opinion on this point (ZDMG., 90, 4) which was based on insufficient material. The important Sogdian fragment, text H, was not then known to me.
1 See BSOS., viii, 583; ZDMG., 90, 4. [Cf. also Bal. girōk, Geiger, No.107.]
2 Cf. also Parthian bgpwhrn, Sogd. βγpyt, lit. "sons of God" = angels (also fem. Sogd. βγpwryt). Thus bgpwhrhas a double meaning in Parthian, it being (Sogd. βγpwr) also the translation of Chin. Tien-tzŭ, or rather of Skt. devaputra.
3 Herein he differed from the common interpretation of the passage (Nephilim = giants), shared also by the authors of the Book of Enoch.
4 M 41: br qrcr wṯ zmbg stft cy whrmyzdbg qyrd d dywn: dw qwn wṯ dw nywn.
5 This word, in the anti-Manichn book by Alexander Lycopolitanus, p. 8, 10, ed. Brinkmann, refers neither to the Manich. "First Battle", nor to Mani's Book of the Giants, as Cumont, Rech., i, 3; ii, 160 sq., erroneously states. Cumont goes so far as to say that in the quoted passage Alexander had given a summary of Mani's work, and Benveniste, MO., xxvi, 213, has repeated this statement. In fact, Alexander says that experts in Greek mythology might quote, from the Greek poets, the Greek γιγαντομαχία, as a parallelto the Manich. doctrine of the rising by the Hyle against God. In ch. 25 (p. 37, 13 sqq.) Alexander explains that such poetical fables about giants could not be regarded as a satisfactory parallel, because they were myths and meant to be understood as allegories. He then (37, 17) quotes the story of Genesisvi, 2-4, which he provides with an allegorical explanation. But he ascribes it to the History of the Jewswithout even mentioning the Book of the Giants. This shows conclusively that he had no knowledge of Mani's book.
1 Jackson, Researches, 37, 67 sq., has "poisonous mass"; cf. OLZ., 1934, 752.
2 Hence the comparative mzndr(e.g. Mir.Man., i) and the superlative Pahl. mā̆zan-tum(e.g. Dd., p. 118, 12 ed. Anklesaria).
3 Clearly to be derived from Av. mazan-"greatness". Cf. also Jackson, loc. cit., on mzn. Hence, the first part of the name of Māzandarānprobably = "gigantic".
4 Thus Dobschz, Decret. Gelas., p. 305.
5 Dobschz, loc. cit., who quotes Fabricius, Cod. pseudepigr., 799 sq., and Migne, Dict. des apocr., ii, 649, 1295.
1 For example, Men.Khr., 68, 12; 69, 12, ed. Andreas; Pahl. Yasna, 9, 10 (p. 71, 19).
2 Shm, of course, transcribes Shm, not Sm.
3 MPers. mhwyA 7, with suff. mhwy-cA 19, Sogd. mhwyC 15 ( = Wrogdad oγlϊin B). Hardly = Māhōi(as suggested ZDMG., 90, 4), for the ending -ōiwas pronounced -ōialso in the third century (cf. e.g. wyrwd= Wērōiin the inscription of Shapur, line 34). Furthermore, there was no Māhōi among the heroes of the Iranian epos (M. is well known as the name of the governor of Marv at the time of the last Yezdegerd). More likely Māhawaiwas a non-Iranian name and figured already in the Aramaic edition of the Kawān; it may have been adapted to Persian. Cf. Mḥwyl, Genesis, iv, 18 ?
4 But see Mir.Man., iii, 858 (b 134 sqq.).
5 The children of the Egrēgoroi share with the inhabitants of Airyana Vaēǰah the distinction of being regarded as the inventors (or first users) of the arts and crafts. For the spelling of Aryān-Vēansee also Appendix, text U. It is not clear whether Yima(text V) had been given a place in the Sogdian Kawān. Ymyẖ, i.e. Imi, is the correct Sogdian form of the name.
1 This system of notation has been used also in my book Sogdica, and in my paper in BSOS., X, pp. 941 sqq. The various interpunction marks are uniformly represented by oo here.
2 But possibly Frg. ishould occupy the first place; see below, notes on lines 95-111.
1 = far less than he could say. Cf. ə hazār yak, GV., xiv, 2,ə hazāra̢ baewara̢ yak, ibid., xvi, 1. Salemann, Zap. Imp. Ak. Nauk, s. viii, t. vi, No.6, 25, quoted Persian az hazār yakī va az bisyār andakī.
2 The texts Band C(Uygur and Sogdian) could be inserted here (or hereabouts).
3 Probably one of the twenty "decarchs" (Enoch6, 7), viz. No. 4 Kokabiel= Χωχαριήλin the Greek fragments, and Χωβαβιήλapud Syncellus.
4 This also could be a "decarch", Arakib- Αρακιήλ, or Aramiel- Ραμιήλ.
5 Incomplete name.
6 Cf. Enoch 7, 5.
7 txtgmight be appellative, = "a board". This would fit in three of the passages, but hardly in the fourth.
8 Evidently this is the dream that Enoch reads in the fragment M 625c ( = Text D, below), which therefore probably belonged to the Kawān. It should be inserted here.
1 Here (or hereabouts) the texts E and F should be entered, both of which deal with the judgment on the fallen angels. Text F approximates to Enoch, ch. 10 (pronouncement of the judgment by God), while Text E is nearer to Enoch, ch. 13 (communication of the judgment the angels by Enoch).
2 = Enoch, 12, 4-5: εἰπὲ τοι̑ς ἐγρηγόροις .... οὐκ ἔσται ὑμι̑ν εἰρήνη.
3 = Enoch, 13, 1-2: ὁ δὲ Ενώχ ... ει̑πεν ... οὐκ ἔσται σοι εἰρήνη κρι̑μα μέγα ἐξη̑λθεν κατὰ σου̑ δη̑σαί σε ... περί ... τη̑ς ἀδικίας καὶ τη̑ς ἀμαρτίας κτλ.
4 = Enoch, 14, 6: ἴδητε τὴν ἀπώλειαν τω̑ν υἱω̑ν ὑμω̑ν.
5 = Syncellus, pp. 44-5 Fl.-R. (ad cap.xvi), cf. Genesis, vi, 3. ἀπολου̑νται οἱ ἀγαπητοὶ ὑμω̑ν .... ὅτι πα̑σαι αἱ ἡμέραι τη̑ς ζωη̑ς αὐτω̑ν ἀπὸ του̑ νυ̑ν οὐ μὴ ἔσονται πλείω τω̑ν ἑκατὸν εἴκοσιν ἐτω̑ν.
6 In Jewish Persian trwis "ram" (Lagarde, Pers. Stud., 73), but in the dialect of Rīahr nr. Bushire (according to the notes made on this dialect by Andreas about seventy years ago) t is "a young she-goat". See JRAS., 1942, 248. [trw, Is. 111, Ier. 5140= Hebr. attūd, probably understood as "he-goat".]
7 These lines evidently refer to the promise of peace and plenty that concludes the divine judgment in Enoch, 10. Hence = "each pair of those animals shall have two hundred young"?
8 sārin: cf. DkM. 487apu.-488, 3, "when they provoke (sārēn-) him he does not get irritated (sār-and better, sārih-)." GrBd. 5, 8, "if you do not provoke, or instigate (sārēn-) a fight" (differently Nyberg, ii, 202). sār-, if from sarəd-(Skt. śardh-), is presumably the transitive to syrydn(from srdhya-according to Bartholom, cf. NGGW., 1932, 215, n. 3.
9 Cf. Enoch, 10, 19: ἡ ἄμπελος [sic]ἣν ἂν φυτεύσωσιν ποιήσουσιν πρόχους οἴνου χιλιάδας .... ἐλαίας ....
10 tyor ty[y] = taifrom taihfrom taiγ(cf. GGA., 1935, 18), is ambiguous: (1) sharp instrument, (2) burning, glow, brightness, sunrays, etc. So also is tyzyy: (1) sharpness, (2) speed. One could also restore ty[gr].
11 Lit. "but the Wing(s) that (is, are) with him." The curious expression was chosen probably on account of the rhythm. For the same reason bycis employed in the place of nyin line 73.
12 Lit. "beats".
13 ystyh-is obviously different from styh-(on which see BSOS., IX, 81), and possibly derived from yst-, cf. zyh-"to be born" from zy-"to be born". ystyh-is met with in W.-L., ii, 558, Ri 25, "blessed chief who stands (ystyhyd?) as the sign of the Light Gods." Lentz has ystyhnd, but without having seen the manuscript one may presume a misreading (cf. ibid., R i l, Lentz: pd[ .. ]dg, but probably pr[d]ng, R i 2, Lentz: p.dr, but probably pyrr, ibid., R ii 22, Lentz: n.z, but probably wn; for further cases see OLZ., 1934, 10).
1 St. John, 13, 18.
2 phrystn: phryz-= Parth. prxtn: prxyz-(cf. Av. pārihaēza-, Sogd. pr-γy; Parth. xt: MPers. xyst) is mostly "to stand around, to be about, versari", sometimes "to stand around for the purpose of looking after someone" = "serve, nurse, protect", often merely "to be". phryz-"to stand off, to abstain" is presumably different (para-haēza-).
3 The series of visions in which Enoch sees the arrangements for the punishment of the fallen angels, etc., and of "the kings and the Mighty" (chaps. xvii sqq.), follows immediately upon the announcement of the divine judgment. Hence, frgg. k-gmust be placed after frg. l. Text G (below), which describes, the execution of the divine order, could perhaps be inserted here.
4 It is difficult to decide whether this fragment should be placed at the end or at the beginning of the book. The 400,000 Righteous may have perished when the Egrēgoroi descended to the earth. The "choosing of beautiful women", etc., strongly suggests the misbehaviour of the Egrēgoroi on their arrival upon the earth. The hard labour imposed on the Mesenians and other nations may be due to the insatiable needs of their giant progeny (Enoch, 7, 2 sqq.). On the other hand, "fire, naphtha, and brimstone" are only mentioned as the weapons with which the archangels overcame the Egrēgoroi, after a prolonged and heavy fight (Text G, 38), and the 400,000 Righteous may well have been the innocent non-combatant victims of this battle which may have had a demoralizing effect even upon the electae. To clear up the debris the archangels would naturally commandeer the men. We do not know whether Mani believed Enoch to have been moved out of sight (ἐλήμφθη Enoch, 12, 1) before the Egrēgoroi appeared, or before they were punished.
5 See texts R, and Q (where 4,000 instead of 400,000).
6 See BSOS., X, 398.
7 See text T, line 3.
8 Cf. Enoch, 7, 1 ?
9 On mynygnsee BSOS., X, 945, n. 2, on hwjyg, ibid., 944, n. 7.
1 py(y) always = nerves, sinews (not "fat" as in Mir.Man., i, etc., as alternative rendering). It is equivalent to nerfs(Chavannes-Pelliot, TraitMan., 32/3 [528/9]), Uygur singir(T.M., iii, 18/9), Copt. = Sehne(Keph., 96, etc.), Sogd. pδδw(unpubl.). Cf. also GrBd., 196, 4, where Goetze, ZII., ii, 70, wrongly has "fat". MPers. pai= NPers. pai= Pashto pala= Sogd. pδδw(not Av. piθwā-).
2 Hardly "to". Cf. Cumont, Rech., i, 49, and my paper NGGW., 1932, 224.
3 Or: over the Just God, sun and moon, the (or: his) two flames. The "Just God" is the Messenger (not = bgrtygr, i.e. Zrwān).
4 Unintelligible. Lit. "... two flames given into the (or: his) hand".
5 Cf. Sb.P.A.W., 1934, 27, and BSOS., VIII, 585.
6 Cf. M 171, 32 sqq. wṯ st ngwg ky w b[w](r)[s] mnhg ky hmyw zrgwng tyd w zmg wd tbn png ny ryzynd. wgwn hwyc hwrwn ngwg pd pzd wd wydx pd xwr wṯ dyjwr, kd dwr c wjydgn wṯ kd nzd w wjydgn, hw pd wxybyy frhyft wd wwryft kbyd, etc. "And some Hearers are like unto the juniper which is ever green, and whose leaves are shed neither in summer nor in winter. So also the pious Hearer, in times of persecution and of free exercise (lit. open-mindedness), in good and bad days, under the eyes of the Elect or out of their sight,he is constant in his charity and faith." Although the word brwsis incomplete in both passages, its restoration is practically a certainty.
7 Possibly the parable of St. Mark, iv, 3 sqq.
8 BSOS., IX, 86.
1 An elaborate version of this parable is found in M 221 R 9-23: u nywg ky hn rwngn w wjyydgn wryyd, wn mng cwn kwẖ myrd[ky] dwxt y nyq zd hy, wd pd wryhryy wd gryyẖ byr hwcyyhr hy. wd hn myrd y kwẖ w hwcyhryyẖ y wy qnyycg xwy dwxtr prg myyẖ cy byr h[wcyhr] [h]y. wd wy dwxtr y hwcyhr[  ]. w w ẖ hndyymn[qwnyẖ] wd ẖ wy qnycg ps[ndyẖ?] wd pd znyy nyy. w[ ] pws cyy zynd[ ] pwsryn y c w[y myrd y ]kwẖ dwxtr z[d(remainder missing), "The Hearer that brings alms to the Elect, is like unto a poor man to whom a pretty daughter has been born, who is very beautiful with charm and loveliness. That poor man fosters the beauty of that girl, his daughter, for she is very beautiful. And that beautiful daughter, he presents her to the king. The king approves of her, and puts her into his harem. He has [several] sons by her. The sons that were born to that poor man's daughter ....". Throughout the story the parabolic optativeis in use.
2 For a similar parable see below, lines 258 sqq.
3 zyyg: this word, hitherto unexplained, occurs in the ābuhragān(M 470 V 14, spelt zyg). The sinners, roasting in hell, see the Righteous enjoying the New Paradise, and ask them: ... wmn ... zyg w dst dyy[d wd ]c yn swcyn bwzy[d] "... put a rope (or: life-line) in our hands and rescue us from this conflagration". Cf. Pahl., Pers. zīg, Nyberg, Mazd. Kal., 68.
4 Possibly "weapons".
5 Cf. Kephalaia, 192/3.
6 Cf. āhīd-gar-ānbelow, F 43/4. For a discussion of āhīdsee Zaehner; BSOS., IX, 315 sq. Perhaps one can understand Av. āhiti-as "something that causes shame", hence "stain", etc. In that case Anāhitācould be compared to Apsaras. As regards NPers. χīre, mentioned by Zaehner, this may be connected with Sogd. γyrk"foolish". The word in DkM., 2058, is not necessarily hyrg-gwn(thus Zaehner, ibid., 312). It might be hyl-= Pashto xəṛ"ashen, grey, etc."
1 Cf. supra, lines 206-212.
2 On boγuqsee Bang, loc. cit., p. 15, who has: "the door of the closed (locked) sun." Acc. to Enoch, chaps. 72 sqq., there are 180 doors in the east one of which is opened each morning for the sun to pass through (the idea, familiar also from Pahlavi books, is of Babylonian origin).
1 Cf. Enoch, 13, 9, ἠ̑λθον πρὸς αὐτούς, καὶ πάντες συνηγμένοι ἐκάθηντο πενθου̑ντες κτλ.
2 Cf. Enoch, 13, 4-6.
3 i.e. the divine order for their punishment (Enoch, 10).
4 [Other fragments of the same manuscript ("T i"), not however belonging to the Kawān, show that there were three columns to a page; hence, the correct order of the columns is: BCDEFA. Perhaps this text, too, is not a fragment of the Kawān.]
1 murzīdanis "persecute, harass", not "show pity" as hitherto translated (S9; Mir.Man., ii; W.-L., ii, 556, r 6).
2 ghwd(Mir.Man., ii), ghwdgn(Mir.Man., i), ghwyn-(ZII., ix, 183, 27): the derivation of these words from vi+ hūby Schaeder, Sb.P.A.W., 1935, 492, n. 3, is based on the translation I had given; this translation, however, was based on nothing but this selfsame etymology.
3 Enoch, 10, 10.
1 This passage in particular seems to show that the text is a fragment of the Kawān. There are two groups of sinners here: one is (apparently) to be transferred from a preliminary fire-prison to the permanent hell at the end of the world ( = the Egrēgoroi), the other consists of the κίβδηλοι( = Giants). The digression on their final fate in the great conflagration, under the eyes of the self-satisfied Righteous (cf. ābuhragān, M470 V), is well in keeping with Mani's discursive style.
2 wy-(different from Parth. wy-"to lead") = "to fly" or "to hunt" ? Cf. wywg"hunter" (BBB., where the translation should be changed), Air. Wb.1356, 1407.
3 My pupil I. Gershevitch thinks prβrshould be derived from prβyr-. It is true that "explanation, announcement" fits most passages better than "chariot"! Hence, Mahāyāna rendered as "the great announcement" ?
3 Enoch, 17,1: ὅταν θέλωσιν φαίνονται ὡσεὶ ἄνθρωποι. ptsδ, cf. Skt. praticchanda-.
4 viz. the human associates of the demons, esp. the "daughters of men".
5 viz. the giants and their children ? Or merely the children of the giants ? See below, S. to Syncellus (apud Fl.-R., p. 25) there were three generations: (1) the giants, (2) the Nephīlīm, their sons, and (3) the Eliud, their grandsons. In the Book of Enochthe giants are killed, or rather incited to kill each other, before the Egrēgoroi are punished (ch. 10). Their spirits shall roam the world, until the day of judgement, as πνεύματα πονηρά(15,8-16,1).
6 This passage shows that the Sogdian text had been translated from either Middle-Persian or Parthian (MPers. ky myhryzd c nwx wyn ry wynrd bwd, Parthian ky wd jywndg c nwx hwyn wsnd wyrt bwd).
7 nδykprobably = skill, art, ability (differently, BBB., p. 105).
8 See above, A 97.
9 Fairly cursive, difficult to read.
10 Probably by assimilation from amai( = imaiin Ezra).
3 See above, G 28-9, and below, text M. According to Enoch, ch. 8, the fallen angels imparted to mankind unholy arts and undesirable knowledge, e.g. astrology, cosmetics, soothsaying, metallurgy, production of weapons, even the art of writing (ch. 69, 9).
2 Presumably the stellar demons.
3 Cf. JRAS. 1942, 232 n. 6.
4 If Mani's famous Ertenkwas indeed a picture-book, this Vifrāsmay well have been the explanatory text published together with it; cf. Polotsky's suggestion, Man. Hom., 18, n. 1, on Mani's εἰκών(but see BBB., pp. 9 sq.). There is no reason for "identifying" the Ertenkwith Mani's Evangelion(Schaeder, Gnomon, 9, 347). The fragments of the Vifrās(M 35, M 186, M 205, M 258, M 740, T ii K, T iii D 278) will be published at some other opportunity.
1 The point is that A eats or kills B, after B had finished C. A man killed his brother over the treaaure, but was killed by a third party, etc. The Great Fire will devour the bodily fire which had swallowed the "exterior fire". Hence, Ohya killed Leviathan, but was killed by Raphael.
2 St. Wikander, Vayu, i [1941], 166, quotes my article on Enoch, and my paper in ZDMG., 1936, p. 4, and remarks that eigentuemlicherweiseI had forgotten Al-Ghaḍanfar's notice on Sām and Narīmān. Less careless readers will find Ghaḍanfar's notice quoted in extensoon the page cited by Wikander.
1 See above, A 98.
2 Cf. above. A 105 sqq.
3 Presumably the number of years supposed to have passed from the time of Enoch to the beginning of the reign of Vitāsp. The date for Enoch was probably calculated with the help of the Jewish world-era, or the mundane era of Alexandria (beginning 5493 B.C.), or by counting backwards from the Deluge. Taking 3237 B.C.(but 3251 B.C.according to the Coptic chronology) as the date of the Deluge (see S. H. Taqizadeh, BSOS., X, 122, under c), and adding 669 ( = from Enoch's death to the Deluge according to the Hebrew Genesis), and subtracting the number in our fragment, 3,28[8 ?], from 3,237 + 669 = 3,906, the resulting date, 618 B.C., agrees perfectly with the traditional Zoroastrian date for the beginning of Vitāsp's reign (258 + 30 years before Alexander's conquest of Persia, 330 B.C.; cf. Taqizadeh, ibid., 127 sq.). From this one may infer that the famous date for Zoroaster: "258 years before Alexander" was known to Mani (Nyberg, Rel. Alt. Iran, 32 sqq., thinks it was invented towards the beginning of the fifth century).
4 The name is possibly to be restored in Tk. Man., iii, p. 39, No. 22, R 5, where wy.tδlpwas read by LeCoq.
5 In quoting this text in ZDMG., 90, p. 5, I took wyjnfor what it seemed to be, viz. Vēan. But as the appearance of Bēanin connection with Vitāspa is incomprehensible, I have now restored [ry]n-wyjn, see above, G 26.
1 For the spelling, cf. kwdws apudTheodore bar Kōnay.
2 mwst= amwast= believer, faithful (not "sad" !), from hmwd-, Arm. havat-.
4 Hardly "food" or "banquet" ? Cf. Parth. wxrn, etc. Also Budd. Sogd. wγr-(wγr-) Impf. wγr-, Inf. wγwrt, etc.) "to abandon" (SCE., 562; Dhuta, 41; P2, 97, 219; P 7, 82; etc., appears to be of no use here.
5 Cf. NPers. ǰehāniyān.
6 Cf. Vd., ii, 20 ? But the Manich. fragment appears to describe the election of Yima to the sovereignty over the world.
7 Cf. BSOS., X, 102, n. 4.
8 yrnmis a karmadhāraya, = acclamation(s), cheering, cf. e.g. Rustam frg.(P 13, 5) prw RBkw yrnm"with loud cheers"; it should not be confused with the bahuvrīhi yrnmk"well-reputed, famous" (e.g. Reichelt, ii, 68, 9; yrnmy, ibid., 61, 2, cf. BBB., 91, on a11). But yrnmis also "(good) fame", see e.g. V.J., 156, 168, 1139.

The Book of Giants Introduction

The Book of Giants

It is fair to say that the patriarch Enoch was as well known to the ancients as he is obscure to modern Bible reaclers. Besides giving his age (365 years), the book of Genesis says of him only that he "walked with God," and afterward "he was not, because God had taken him" (Gen. 5:24). This exalted way of life and mysterious demise made Enoch into a figure of considerable fascination, and a cycle of legends grew up around him.

Many of the legends about Enoch were collected already in ancient times in several long anthologies. The most important such anthology, and the oldest, is known simply as The Book of Enoch, comprising over one hundred chapters. It still survives in its entirety (although only in the Ethiopic language) and forms an important source for the thought of Judaism in the last few centuries B.C.E. Significantly, the remnants of several almost complete copies of The Book of Enoch in Aramaic were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, and it is clear that whoever collected the scrolls considered it a vitally important text. All but one of the five major components of the Ethiopic anthology have turned up among the scrolls. But even more intriguing is the fact that additional, previously unknown or little-known texts about Enoch were discovered at Qumran. The most important of these is The Book of Giants.

Enoch lived before the Flood, during a time when the world, in ancient imagination, was very different. Human beings lived much longer, for one thing; Enoch's son Methuselah, for instance, attained the age of 969 years. Another difference was that angels and humans interacted freely -- so freely, in fact, that some of the angels begot children with human females. This fact is neutrally reported in Genesis (6:1-4), but other stories view this episode as the source of the corruption that made the punishing flood necessary. According to The Book of Enoch, the mingling of angel and human was actually the idea of Shernihaza, the leader of the evil angels, who lured 200 others to cohabit with women. The offspring of these unnatural unions were giants 450 feet high. The wicked angels and the giants began to oppress the human population and to teach them to do evil. For this reason God determined to imprison the angels until the final judgment and to destroy the earth with a flood. Enoch's efforts to intercede with heaven for the fallen angels were unsuccessful (1 Enoch 6-16).

The Book of Giants retells part of this story and elaborates on the exploits of the giants, especially the two children of Shemihaza, Ohya and Hahya. Since no complete manuscript exists of Giants, its exact contents and their order remain a matter of guesswork. Most of the content of the present fragments concerns the giants' ominous dreams and Enoch's efforts to interpret them and to intercede with God on the giants' behalf. Unfortunately, little remains of the independent adventures of the giants, but it is likely that these tales were at least partially derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology. Thus the name of one of the giants is Gilgamesh, the Babylonian hero and subject of a great epic written in the third millennium B.C.E. A summary statement of the descent of the wicked angels, bringing both knowledge and havoc. Compare Genesis 6:1-2, 4.

What's left over of the tablets

1Q23 Frag. 9 + 14 + 15 2( . . . ) they knew the secrets of ( . . . ) 3( . . . si)n was great in the earth ( . . . ) 4( . . . ) and they killed manY ( . . ) 5( . . . they begat) giants ( . . . ) The angels exploit the fruifulness of the earth. 4Q531 Frag. 3 2( . . . everything that the) earth produced ( . . . ) ( . . . ) the great fish ( . . . ) 14( . . . ) the sky with all that grew ( . . . ) 15( . . . fruit of) the earth and all kinds of grain and al1 the trees ( . . . ) 16( . . . ) beasts and reptiles . . . (al)l creeping things of the earth and they observed all ( . . . ) |8( . . . eve)ry harsh deed and ( . . . ) utterance ( . . . ) l9( . . . ) male and female, and among humans ( . . . ) The two hundred angels choose animals on which to perform unnatural acts, including, presumably, humans. 1Q23 Frag. 1 + 6 ( . . . two hundred) 2 donkeys, two hundred asses, two hundred . . . rams of the) 3 flock, two hundred goats, two hundred ( . . . beast of the) 4 field from every animal, from every (bird . . . ) 5( . . . ) for miscegenation ( . . . ) The outcome of the demonic corruption was violence, perversion, and a brood of monstrous beings. Compare Genesis 6:4. 4Q531 Frag. 2 ( . . . ) they defiled ( . . . ) 2( . . . they begot) giants and monsters ( . . . ) 3( . . . ) they begot, and, behold, all (the earth was corrupted . . . ) 4( . . . ) with its blood and by the hand of ( . . . ) 5(giant's) which did not suffice for them and ( . . . ) 6( . . . ) and they were seeking to devour many ( . . . ) 7( . . . ) 8( . . . ) the monsters attacked it. 4Q532 Col. 2 Frags. 1 - 6 2( . . . ) flesh ( . . . ) 3 al(l . . . ) monsters ( . . . ) will be ( . . . ) 4( . . . ) they would arise ( . . . ) lacking in true knowledge ( . . . ) because ( . . . ) 5( . . . ) the earth (grew corrupt . . . ) mighty ( . . . ) 6( . . . ) they were considering ( . . . ) 7( . . . ) from the angels upon ( . . . ) 8( . . . ) in the end it will perish and die ( . . . ) 9( . . . ) they caused great corruption in the (earth . . . ) ( . . . this did not) suffice to ( . . . ) "they will be ( . . . ) The giants begin to be troubled by a series of dreams and visions. Mahway, the titan son of the angel Barakel, reports the first of these dreams to his fellow giants. He sees a tablet being immersed in water. When it emerges, all but three names have been washed away. The dream evidently symbolizes the destruction of all but Noah and his sons by the Flood. 2Q26 ( . . . ) they drenched the tablet in the wa(ter . . . ) 2( . . . ) the waters went up over the (tablet . . . ) 3( . . . ) they lifted out the tablet from the water of ( . . . ) The giant goes to the others and they discuss the dream. 4Q530 Frag.7 ( . . . this vision) is for cursing and sorrow. I am the one who confessed 2( . . . ) the whole group of the castaways that I shall go to ( . . . ) 3( . . . the spirits of the sl)ain complaining about their killers and crying out 4( . . . ) that we shall die together and be made an end of ( . . . ) much and I will be sleeping, and bread 6( . . . ) for my dwelling; the vision and also ( . . . ) entered into the gathering of the giants 8( . . . ) 6Q8 ( . . . ) Ohya and he said to Mahway ( . . . ) 2( . . . ) without trembling. Who showed you all this vision, (my) brother? 3( . . . ) Barakel, my father, was with me. 4( . . . ) Before Mahway had finished telling what (he had seen . . . ) 5( . . . said) to him, Now I have heard wonders! If a barren woman gives birth ( . . . ) 4Q530 Frag. 4 3(There)upon Ohya said to Ha(hya . . . ) 4( . . . to be destroyed) from upon the earth and ( . . . ) 5( . . . the ea)rth. When 6( . . . ) they wept before (the giants . . . ) 4Q530 Frag. 7 3( . . . ) your strength ( . . . ) 4( . . . ) 5 Thereupon Ohya (said) to Hahya ( . . . ) Then he answered, It is not for 6us, but for Azaiel, for he did ( . . . the children of) angels 7 are the giants, and they would not let all their poved ones) be neglected (. . . we have) not been cast down; you have strength ( . . . ) The giants realize the futility of fighting against the forces of heaven. The first speaker may be Gilgamesh. 4Q531 Frag. 1 3( . . . I am a) giant, and by the mighty strength of my arm and my own great strength 4( . . . any)one mortal, and I have made war against them; but I am not ( . . . ) able to stand against them, for my opponents 6( . . . ) reside in (Heav)en, and they dwell in the holy places. And not 7( . . . they) are stronger than I. 8( . . . ) of the wild beast has come, and the wild man they call (me). 9( . . . ) Then Ohya said to him, I have been forced to have a dream ( . . . ) the sleep of my eyes (vanished), to let me see a vision. Now I know that on ( . . . ) 11-12( . . . ) Gilgamesh ( . . . ) Ohya's dream vision is of a tree that is uprooted except for three of its roots; the vision's import is the same as that of the first dream. 6Q8 Frag. 2 1three of its roots ( . . . ) (while) I was (watching,) there came ( . . . they moved the roots into) 3 this garden, all of them, and not ( . . . ) Ohya tries to avoid the implications of the visions. Above he stated that it referred only to the demon Azazel; here he suggests that the destruction is for the earthly rulers alone. 4Q530 Col. 2 1 concerns the death of our souls ( . . . ) and all his comrades, (and Oh)ya told them what Gilgamesh said to him 2( . . . ) and it was said ( . . . ) "concerning ( . . . ) the leader has cursed the potentates" 3 and the giants were glad at his words. Then he turned and left ( . . . ) More dreams afflict the giants. The details of this vision are obscure, but it bodes ill for the giants. The dreamers speak first to the monsters, then to the giants. Thereupon two of them had dreams 4 and the sleep of their eye, fled from them, and they arose and came to ( . . . and told) their dreams, and said in the assembly of (their comrades) the monsters 6( . . . In) my dream I was watching this very night 7(and there was a garden . . . ) gardeners and they were watering 8( . . . two hundred trees and) large shoots came out of their root 9( . . . ) all the water, and the fire burned all 10(the garden . . . ) They found the giants to tell them 11(the dream . . . ) Someone suggests that Enoch be found to interpret the vision. ( . . . to Enoch) the noted scribe, and he will interpret for us 12 the dream. Thereupon his fellow Ohya declared and said to the giants, 13 I too had a dream this night, O giants, and, behold, the Ruler of Heaven came down to earth 14( . . . ) and such is the end of the dream. (Thereupon) all the giants (and monsters! grew afraid 15 and called Mahway. He came to them and the giants pleaded with him and sent him to Enoch 16(the noted scribe). They said to him, Go ( . . . ) to you that 17( . . . ) you have heard his voice. And he said to him, He wil 1 ( . . . and) interpret the dreams ( . . . ) Col. 3 3( . . . ) how long the giants have to live. ( . . . ) After a cosmic journey Mahway comes to Enoch and makes his request. ( . . . he mounted up in the air) 4 like strong winds, and flew with his hands like ea(gles . . . he left behind) 5 the inhabited world and passed over Desolation, the great desert ( . . . ) 6 and Enoch saw him and hailed him, and Mahway said to him ( . . . ) 7 hither and thither a second time to Mahway ( . . . The giants awaig 8 your words, and all the monsters of the earth. If ( . . . ) has been carried ( . . . ) 9 from the days of ( . . . ) their ( . . . ) and they will be added ( . . . ) 10( . . . ) we would know from you their meaning ( . . . ) 11( . . . two hundred tr)ees that from heaven (came down. . . ) Enoch sends back a tablet with its grim message of judgment, but with hope for repentance. 4Q530 Frag. 2 The scribe (Enoch . . . ) 2( . . . ) 3 a copy of the second tablet that (Epoch) se(nt . . . ) 4 in the very handwriting of Enoch the noted scribe ( . . . In the name of God the great) 5 and holy one, to Shemihaza and all (his companions . . . ) 6 let it be known to you that not ( . . . ) 7 and the things you have done, and that your wives ( . . . ) 8 they and their sons and the wives of (their sons . . . ) 9 by your licentiousness on the earth, and there has been upon you ( . . . and the land is crying out) 10 and complaining about you and the deeds of your children ( . . . ) 11 the harm that you have done to it. ( . . . ) 12 until Raphael arrives, behold, destruction (is coming, a great flood, and it will destroy all living things) 13 and whatever is in the deserts and the seas. And the meaning of the matter ( . . . ) 14 upon you for evil. But now, loosen the bonds bi(nding you to evil . . . ) l5 and pray. A fragment apparently detailing a vision that Enoch saw. 4Q531 Frag. 7 3( . . . great fear) seized me and I fell on my face; I heard his voice ( . . . ) 4( . . . ) he dwelt among human beings but he did not learn from them ( . . . )

Reconstruction Book of Giants


-The reconstruction-


Unknown Author

My earlier study "Ancient Gods and Giants" traced the biblical references to giant races and individuals in the Old Testament. This article endeavours to investigate further information on the above by looking at the fragmentary remains of the script on the Giants in the Aramaic (about 300 BC) and Manichean (about 250 AD) versions.

Aramaic is believed to be the language in general use in Israel at this time and therefore thought to be the language spoken by Jesus Christ. The fragmentary Aramaic version was found among the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947. The Manichean (also fragmentary) is believed to be by Mani, (c. 215-276) , the founder of a heretical religious sect.

Although it is important to scrutinise the two versions mentioned above, a more coherent story is to be obtained in the Book of Enoch, a version known as Enoch 1. Especially, the Book of Watchers, part of the Book of Enoch. (chapters 1-36). Enoch is one of the most intriguing characters in the Bible, as he was at the end, transported to heaven and did not die in the normal sense.

Enoch lived before the Flood and was the great great grandfather of Noah. He was clearly an object of fascination throughout the centuries and many stories and legends accreted around him.

The Book of Giants enlarges on the mention in Genesis 6:4 of giants being on the earth at this time.

The Book of Enoch is considered by some to be one of the pseudepigrapha collection, so called because the reputed authors employed the name of a notable figure from the past as the title head simply to impart a credence to their story which it otherwise might not have.

Probably the most arresting facet of the Book of Enoch is the allusion to the sexual intermingling of human females with (fallen) angels. The resultant offspring were the giants who oppressed humanity and taught evil. Because of the wickedness which had come upon mankind, God decided to bring about the great flood. We are told that Enoch tried to intercede with heaven on behalf of the wicked angels but was unsuccessful. The Book of Giants expands this story and recounts the exploits of the giants.

In the Book of Enoch, we read that the idea of mixing with human females was discussed and permitted by Shemihaza, the leader of the wicked angels, some 200 in total. The Book of Giants dilates this story, especially being concerned with the activities of the two sons of Shemihaza, Ohya and Hahya. As stated above, we have only fragments of the Book of Giants, part of which is concerned with the fateful dreams of the giants, Enoch`s attempts to interpret them and his unsuccessful efforts to plead with God for the giants.


(We have stated that the fragments need to be reconstructed in order to achieve a more or less comprehensible narrative. The initial fragments tell of the descent from heaven of the rebel or wicked angels, who brought knowledge to mankind, but also wreaked great disruption and evil upon the earth. It is instructive to see parallel information in Genesis, 6:4. Square brackets indicate (my) presumed connecting material. Round/normal brackets indicate my comments.)


(There are several versions supposedly accounting for the descent of some of the angels to earth from heaven. Rebellion against the Godhead is a generic term. Details are variously ascribed: Lucifer, onetime chief of the angels, was it seems, too proud to bow down before humans, as God wished and furthermore became envious of his maker, and was for his disobedience cast out of heaven. Other angels of like mind followed, and left heaven for earth. Eventually they became known as Fallen Angels. It does however seem as if the main reason for the descent was lust for the daughters of men, which led to sexual intercourse between the (now) wicked angels and earthly women.

The principal transgressors were a body of angels known as Watchers whose task was supposed to be to watch and guide the actions of humanity. Clearly, they betrayed this trust and it appears were the instigators of sexual co-mingling. One of the leaders (at this stage) of the proposed rebellion was one called Shemiraza, who was persuaded into allowing himself and about two hundred angels to adopt human form and go on this venture. It is clear from the above that pride and lust were the main driving forces of the defection. Over-weaning ambition was another. God banned these disloyal angels from heaven and eventually condemned them to an everlasting life of damnation. However, they in some measure retained their power.

The result of their taking wives among human females was the birth of monstrous beings and wicked giants usually known as Nephilim, In Genesis, 6.4 are the words: There were giants on the earth in those days They brought with them certain arcane knowledge but also created havoc among all earth dwellers. It is at this point that we begin with the Dead Sea Scrolls version of the Book of Giants.


[These fallen angels] knew the secrets of [all things]. [At this time] sin was great on the earth.

The wicked angels killed many people and begot giants [with mortal women].

The wicked (former) angels [consumed] everything that the earth produced. : the great fish, the birds in the sky, all the fruit of the earth, all kinds of grain , [the fruit] of the trees, [even beasts and reptiles they committed sin against] all the creeping things of the earth: they [observed/watched all earthly things]. They performed every harsh deed with harsh utterance upon male and female creation and upon/among humanity itself.

(Two hundred angels had been persuaded to leave heaven for the earth)

The two hundred angels seized 200 hundred donkeys, 200 asses, 200 hundred sheep and rams of the flock, 200 goats, 200 beasts of the field from every animal and from every bird, [for experiments in in-breeding with humans] and all types of miscegenation.

(As a result, monsters were created among all the perversion, due to mingling animal seed with mortal women. Similar to Egyptian Gods, satyrs and possibly even dinosaurs. The historian Josephus mentions that Enoch had business in Egypt, then called Siriad)

[The monsters sought out[ flesh [which would be destroyed or perverted.] Monsters and giants would arise who were lacking in true knowledge because [they were abominations]. Meantime the earth grew ever more corrupt and [the giants more] mighty. They considered [trying to persuade other angels to come upon the earth otherwise their tyranny might ultimately] perish and die. All the time they were causing great corruption in the earth. [If this aim] did not suffice [to perpetuate them] , they would be [finally destroyed.] (they believed).

[The fallen ones] defiled all creation and begot giants and monstrous creatures, and corrupted all the earth, [which was] defiled by blood shedding, at the hands of the giants. But this did not suffice them and [they were seeking all the time] to devour/destroy many/much more. The monsters attacked [all creation.]

(The giants are now troubled with portentous dreams, and Mahway reports his dream to the rest of the giants. Apparently, he sees a tablet inscribed with several names immersed in water, which  only has three names remaining when it emerges. The usual interpretation is that this symbolizes the death of all on earth except Noah and his sons. The story continues.)

[Mahway reported that men] drenched the tablet in water so that it was covered. It was then lifted

 out and all the inscriptions but three had vanished.

(Mahway goes to the others. They discuss the dream.)

This vision is cause for cursing and sorrow, said the group. I, said Mahway, am the one [who will be blamed most of the whole group], of those cast down out of heaven, and I shall have to go to hear the spirits of the slain complaining about their killers and crying out that we shall all die together and be made an end of, when I am sleeping [and dreaming] Bread and dwelling [will be denied me ]. So, troubled with this vision, [the monsters] entered into the gathering of the giants.

Then Ohya spoke without trembling to Mahway Who showed you all this vision, my brother? Barakel, my father, was with me [as corroborator, seemed experienced the same vision] But before Mahway had finished telling what he had seen in his dream, Ohya said to him, Now I have heard wonders! If a barren woman gives birth (parable) [that would be an equal wonder!]

Thereupon Ohya said to Hahya, Are we to be destroyed upon this earth? When they had finished discussing the dreams, both Ohya and Hahya wept before [the assembled giants and monsters.]

Use your strength, [the group counseled]. Then Ohya said to Hayha, This doom is not for us but for Azazel (one of the wicked angels) for he [showed most corruption] to humanity). . . They (the good angels) surely will not let all their loved ones (i.e. the giants and monsters) be neglected. We are not to be cast down .You [(addressing the crowd of giants, angels (fallen) and monsters] have strength and [can resist] (The giants however, realize that fighting heaven is futile)

(Gilgamesh speaks) I am a giant, and by my mighty strength in my arm, I can vanquish anyone mortal. I have made war with them (mortals) in the past but I am not now able to stand against my opponents who reside in heaven, and dwell in holy places. And not only this, but they are in fact stronger than I am. The day of the ravening wild beasts has come and that of the wild man [as I am known].

Then Ohya said to him. I have been forced to have a dream... The sleep of my eyes vanished so that I could see a vision. [Now I know that on the field of battle we cannot win.] Gilgamish - note! (Ohya describes his vision.

I saw a tree uprooted except for three of its roots. While I was as it were watching, [some beings (good angels?)] moved all the roots into this garden [but not the three] 20 .(The interpretation of this dream is similar to that of the earlier one.)

This dream vision concerns the death of our souls, said Ohya, and those of Gilgamesh and all his companions. However, Gilgamesh said to me that [all the forebodings] concerned [only the rulers of earth, the temporal, powerful ones, whom the leader of the good angels has cursed]. The giants were glad at his words. Then [Ohya] turned and left the assembly. (There are more dreams, the import of which is hostile to the giants. The dreamers report to the monsters and then to the giants.)

After this, two of them had visions; they were unable to sleep and they came to their comrades and told their dreams, to the assembly, their comrades. The monsters. They reported that in their dream they seemed to be observing a garden where gardeners (angels?) were watering two hundred trees and large shoots came out of their roots . [Suddenly the garden became ablaze] so that the garden was destroyed and all the water evaporated. Then they went to the giants to tell them of their dreams. (The suggestion was made to seek out the scribe and prophet Enoch to interpret the dreams.)

Let us seek out Enoch, the noted scribe, and he will interpret for us the dream.. Thereupon Ohya declared to the giants I too this night had another dream and behold the Ruler of Heaven came down to earth [and made an end of us]. Such is the ending of my dream. Upon hearing this, all the monster and giants grew afraid and called Mahway, (the Titan) He came to meet the giants who pleaded with him and sent him to Enoch, the scribe. They (the giants) said to him Go to Enoch so that he may speak to you and then return saying] you have heard his voice. Ohya spoke to Mahway, and said to him, He (Enoch) will listen and interpret the dreams and tell us how long we giants have to live and rule on earth. (After a journey through the heavens Mahway sees Enoch and speaks to him of his request)

Mahway mounted up in the air as if upon strong winds, using his hands like eagle`s wings. . He left behind the inhabited world and passed over the great desert of Desolation., Enoch saw him and hailed him [Mahway told Enoch of his mission and said to him that he would speak with him.] Flying here and there Enoch came a second time to Mahway (after he, Enoch, had warned Mahway about flying too near the sun) Mahway spoke to Enoch and said that the giants and all the monsters of the earth await his words. [If the Fall of the giants/wicked angels has been carried out (by divine Providence)] from their days of heavenly glory, can you at least assure us that the number of our days spent doing harm will be added to our lives. We wish to know the meaning of the two hundred trees that came down from heaven. (Enoch, having received Mahway`s request, tried to intercede with God but unavailingly.

Accordingly, he presented Mahway with a tablet which was full of foreboding about the coming judgment, but which offered some hope for the future via repentance.)

The scribe, Enoch, gave Mahway a copy of another tablet (not the one doused in water) that bore his (Enoch`s) own handwriting. The writing on the tablet said: in the name of the great and holy God, this message is sent to, Shemihaza, and all his companions. Let it be known to you (the giants and monsters) that you will not escape judgment for all the things that you have done, and that your wives, their sons, and the wives of their sons [will not escape,] and that by your licentiousness on the earth, there has been visited upon you a heavenly judgment. The land is crying out and complaining about you and the deeds of your children and about the harm you have done to it. Until the heavenly angel *Raphael, arrives, behold, destruction is coming by a great flood which will destroy all living things, whatever is in the deserts and the seas. The meaning of the [dreams/matter is by way of a judgment] for all your evil. But if you now loosen the bonds binding you to evil and pray (for forgiveness). (You may be saved).

Raphael: an angel sent by God to fight against evil and especially Azazel (Enoch it appears also saw a vision at some point. He said the following); A great fear seized me and I fell on my face. * I heard his voice. (whose/ the angel`s?) (The text continues): He (Enoch) dwelt among human beings but he did not learn from or rely on them. It seems possible Enoch is talking about the occasion when an angel came down to earth to summon him to heaven.

Here ends the fragmentary Book of Giants (Dead Sea Scrolls version).

It would be instructive here to look at relevant passages from The Book of Enoch, 1, especially the section on The Watchers where we are told of the corrupting influence of the Fallen Angels, giving humanity, (especially female) forbidden and arcane knowledge. Many of the women were made pregnant by the (evidently polymorphous) angels The story of the Giants is easier to follow in the Book of Enoch than in the very fragmented DSS version. Obviously much is lost of the latter version, beginning and end as well as throughout the narrative.

According to the Book of Enoch, (in the Watchers section), Enoch explains that the 200 trees represent the 200 hundred Watchers (the angels who betrayed their trust and that the felling of their trunks signifies their coming destruction by fire and flood. In another part of the Book we are told that Mahway in his flight, narrowly escaped being burnt by the sun, by means of Enoch`s warning. The three names remaining (on the tablet in the first dream reported) symbolize the destruction of all creatures except Noah and his two sons.

MANICHEAN VERSION (of Book of Giants)

Largely similar to the DSS version (as to be expected) but with several differing details. This Manichean version is even more fragmentary than the DSS text and the fragments are in several languages, Middle Persian, Coptic being some of them. Below I give a summary/reconstruction of the fragments to try to form a coherent narrative.

The version begins with the descent of the wicked angels to earth, because of their lust for mortal women. The angels taught forbidden secrets to the women (and men) which led eventually to the spread of wickedness upon the earth. They subjugate and murder many people. Shemihaza begets two giant sons, Ohya and Ahyah. Other giants are engendered by other fallen angels/demons, who bring ruin to all things earthly. Humankind pleads for help. The giants quarrel among themselves. Ohyah has a dream about a tablet thrown into water, that when it emerged carried three signs indicating coming destruction. His brother dreams of a garden containing some two hundred trees. Ahyah tells of a dream he had in which he saw people lamenting . The giant Mahway flying along seeking Enoch, hears his voice warning him not to fly too close to the sun. He is guided by Enoch, who interprets the dreams, which suggest impending doom for the giants. Enoch`s reply (in his own hand) is brought to the giants, which is a message of foreboding, seeming to predict a time of flood. Mahway goes again to Enoch (living in a sort of earthly paradise) to tell him everything, and then Ohya has a dream in which he ascends to heaven and sees the water of the earth consumed with fire. Ohya, Shemihaza and Mahway have a conversation and seem to refer to weapons. Ohya and Mahway fall out and fight.

The giants are glad to see Enoch, (either visually or by the tablet) and promise to reform, asking for mercy. Enoch however, warns the giants/monsters they will face damnation despite their belief they would never lose their power. The angels descend from heaven and terrify the demons who take human form. The angels lead the children of the giants away to nearby towns.

The two hundred demons fight an intense battle with the four angels. Ohyah and Ahyah intend to keep their promise to do battle. The four archangels bind the watchers with chains and destroy their children. It seems prisons had been prepared for them long ago. Ohyah, the monster Leviathan, and the angel Raphael took part in a great battle. And then, vanished!


The DSS version of the Book of Giants, as we have just read, begins with the story of the descent of the disloyal angels to earth, their illicit union with mortal women, resulting in a giant and monstrous progeny. (We do not know how much is lost from the beginning; it seems likely that the fragment/s we have are not the beginning but tell of events some way into the account.) This much can be echoed in the O.T. Genesis, 4:6 ) Really the early story of the first giants ends here, tantalizingly, and is not taken up until later Books of the OT where further material is related concerning the various races of giants .

There are many references to giants in subsequent Books, denoting abiding belief, by the writers, in their existence and power. The DSS version goes on to relate the evil deeds of the giants and monsters, on earth and humanity, leading to the wrath of God and his threatened vengeance by means of a flood. This much we also learn in Genesis, leading on to the story of Noah and his Ark. The episode we encounter in the Book of Giants, must date at about this time since we are told of the coming destruction of the giants. Because of the evil that the giants had caused (the giants being part of humanity albeit extraordinary) but maybe more so because the human race itself was given to evil and immorality as a result of being corrupted by the descended (wicked) angels, the Lord we are told decided to destroy all living things on earth. This we are also told in Genesis.

The same story is told in the DSS version of the Book of Giants: there is an impending doom. It is at this point that the two accounts, Genesis and the Book of Giants, separate. In the DSS story we learn of the troublesome dreams of the giants, or some of them, that seem to show a baleful future for the giants. (This aspect is not mentioned in Genesis.) As the narrative of the Book of Giants indicates, Enoch is sought to interpret the dreams. Clearly there is much more detail about the giants in the DSS account than in Genesis.

The Pentateuch

The first five Books of the OT Bible are often reputed to be by Moses, (especially Jews).

This is not generally believed now (by other faiths). Genesis, in keeping with the rest of the Bible, has no verifiable date with regard to its writing. It probably grew over the centuries, from several sources, and by many hands. It may date from about 1000 years BC. In its first form, whatever that may have been, but most of the first Bible was lost in 6th century BC when the temple of Solomon was destroyed by King Nebuchadnezzar II of the Chaldean Babylon in 587 BC. It is certainly well written before the DSS version (of about 300 BC) and of course before the Manichean version of about 250 AD, which itself differs in several details from the DSS version. Large parts of the Bible were rewritten during the 70 years of Exile of the strain of Judah in Babylon by the Prophets Daniel and Ezekiel.


There is much evidence of one kind or another for the existence of giant beings on the earth in earliest times. Whether one accepts this evidence or not is up to the individual. The bible itself is a collation of stories to which credence may or may not be given. Certainly much emphasis is placed on the existence of giants and the part they played in the biblical world. How the giants came into existence in the first place we are told in Genesis and the Book of Giants.

That they played a large part in the early days of man and his destruction by flood is central to the allusions in the biblical/religious literature. Reading Genesis 6:4 and the subsequent verses sets the scene; the story in the Book of Giants (DSS) follows on naturally to give additional information. Unfortunately, as with the beginning of the text, the concluding sections are missing.

The final message we are left with (in both accounts) is that the (wicked) giants are vanquished, but the mystery remains: giants are mentioned AFTER the flood!


One of the most important considerations to exercise modern scholarship is: why were the books written in the first place? The following matter attempts some answers. (Clearly ALL the biblical Books had some raison d`etre.!)


As we have learned, one of the accounts of giants is by Mani, brought up in a Jewish/Christian sect. As the founder of a new (heretical) religion Mani wished to attract attention by writing several scriptures, most now lost. The Book of Giants is/was probably his most prominent work, composed in the dominant tongue of the area, Aramaic. He wrote hoping that his doctrines would be preserved, and partly to this end, drew on other major faiths to bolster credence in him and his teachings.

One of the main themes/subjects of ancient religious thought and writings was that of the existence of giants and their battles. (Echoes of Greek mythology). As we know, reference to giant beings is (first?) made in Genesis (depending on when this was written) could be as we have remarked, about 1000 BC. Mani therefore wished among other things, to establish himself as familiar with, if not an actual authority on, ancient biblical or religious history and writings. His background -that of Jewish Christianity also motivated him to pen (Christian source) literature and to see himself as giving a warning to others of the perils of not leading a semi-Christian, moral, life.

Not only this, but Mani intended his Book to illustrate ancient Iranian mythology (note Gilgamesh), since Iran was one of his main centers for proselytizing. The story of the giants was therefore adapted to suit his purpose. It is clear that Mani based much of his material on the text we now have since the DSS discovery. Apparently, there was also a very much earlier Aramaic Book of Giants, which Mani also laid under contribution. Though these early stories of giants may be regarded as history , Mani`s intention was to give his version a decidedly sectarian flavor. His main aim was therefore to impress and to steer aright his contemporaries.

Whether Mani himself believed in the stories of giants and their depredations is a moot point. Maybe he did, and this gives his account added moment. Fundamentally, Mani wished to inspire, impress and evangelize. I see no reason to doubt that IN HIS TIME he was successful.


The version of the Book of Giants found (in 1947) at Qumran in Israel, is of earlier date than the Mani text, discussed above, and is generally thought to have been composed about 300 BC.

Unlike Mani`s text, which is decidedly sectarian in tone , the fragments from Qumran show no particular religious bias and appear to be (probably) a distillation of giant stories that had been around (in oral form) for a long time . Genesis basically tells a very similar story about fallen angels and the Watchers to that of the Qumran fragments. Clearly the compiler (or compilers) of the story of the giants was intent on preserving this lore for future generations. It is equally clear that legends of giants were taken seriously and their quondam existence thoroughly believed in. The Qumran Book of Giants was on a par with all the other Books discovered, and by no means to be construed as something mythological, but on the contrary was regarded with true historicity. The language of the fragment is mainly Hebrew and Aramaic.

Details differ in the two versions.

Both however, agree on what might be regarded as the main feature: that some angels descended to earth who (and) were allured by the beauty of mortal women by whom they produced beings that grew up as giants. This was not the only aspect which angered the deity, but also the revealing of heavenly secrets to humanity. This story would basically account for evil upon earth and the creation of demons out of wicked angels, as a result partly of imparting arcane and forbidden knowledge (to humanity). It is clear that one of the main aims of the writer or writers, of the Qumran text is to perpetuate the account of the beginnings of earthly wickedness.

Some of the sources used, are derived from Near Eastern myth, (as opposed to the Iranian of the Mani text) as witness the name Gilgamesh, well known in Sumerian literature from the famous Epic of Gilgamesh, a very long time before. The compiler was obviously well aware of these myths/stories, and thought them worth being given a modern (for that time) setting.

The composition of the work rules out a Christian context (as it appears to be a BC construct). It was probably produced by a Jewish scholar who believed the story of the fate of the giants was perhaps a salutary one, defining or reinforcing the then historical context. Perhaps in the concluding section we should attempt to put the Scrolls (or at least the writing/copying of them) in perspective/context.

It is generally believed that the Scrolls found at Qumran were the work of a Jewish sect called the Essenes who flourished c. 150 BC to 70 AD (when the Temple (of Herodes) at Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans). The dates are approximate : the sect may very well have existed before the date of 150 BC. (We still do not know much about them!) It was a time of Roman domination for the Jews and the Essenes may have tried to escape the worst aspects of the Roman persecution by fleeing to the area of the Dead Sea. Undoubtedly the underlying motive for the establishment of the sect in the desert hills was that the followers of the sect wished to practice their own brand of the Jewish faith away from the dictates of the priesthood in Jerusalem They wished to live by their own rules and principles , believing that their way was the true one. They spent much of their time in ascetic, devotion and living according to the roles and rituals laid down in their own holy book. It seems that much of their time also ,was spent in writing - or copying ancient manuscripts: for example, all of the OT texts (except Esther). They clearly wished to preserve these and at the same time to put their own gloss on the stories. A central tenet of their belief was Messianic: belief in the coming of a righteous one.

Some of the scrolls (at Qumran) date from c. 400 BC (or earlier, if not written by the sect itself). Modern research suggests that the Scrolls were not all written (or copied) AT Qumran but that some were imported to place in safe hideaways , to keep them from enemies , such as the Romans, - or main-line Jewish hierarchy who might not approve of Essene interpretation. Apart from throwing light on Jewish affairs at this time , it is possible to suggest the Scrolls reflect a type of nascent Christian thought. As with the NT the Scrolls indicate a messianic expectation based on a dualistic concept of the Last Day, when Good and Evil will be weighed in the balance.


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