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Ancient Rome, Index

The Roman Empire



The Roman empire in the beginning of the era

Ancient texts from the Roman empire part of the Public domain .

Most files are gathered from the internet and published here to give my readers the opportunity to combine these texts with my book about Ancient History published on this website.

This is only a small part of all the publications that are availably in the Public domain.

A short description of the timeline of the Roman empire in the first and second century AD.:

44 BC JULIUS CAESAR the first emperor murdered.

27 BC AUGUSTUS emperor.

AD 1-50

1 Augustus in the 28th year of his rule as Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus Pontifex Maximus Pater Patriae. His wife, since 38 bc, Livia Drusilla. War in Germany.

2 Peace made with Persia. Forum of Augustus dedicated. Scandal of Augustus' daughter Julia. Death of Lucius at Marseilles. Tiberius returns from Rhodes.

3 Ariobarzanes made King of Armenia. Proconsulare Imperium renewed for ten years. Augustus's new house on the Palatine destroyed by fire.

4 Death of Gaius in Lycia. Augustus adopts Tiberius and Agrippa Postumus, Tiberius adopts Germanicus. Tiberius in Germany - he subdues the Bructeri and Cherusci. Conspiracy of Cn Cornelius Cinna.

5 Tiberius in Germany, He reaches the Elbe. Sentius receives triumphal honours. Famine in Italy.

6 Pannonia and Dalmatia revolt. Alarm at Rome, Famine in the city. Judaea made a province.

7 Tiberius and Germanicus in Pannonia. Agrippa Postumus banished to Planasia, Ovid banished to Tomi on the Black Sea.

8 Subjection of Pannonia under the general Marcus Lepidus. The orator Cassius Severus banished for libel.

9 Pannonian War ends. Arminius defeats Varus in Germany. The Lex Pappia Poppaea Ara Pacis inaugurated.

10 Pannonia established as an imperial province. Tiberius secures the Rhine defences. Arch of Dolabella and SIlanus on the ancient Celimontana gate. The obelisk of the Horologium Augusti brought from Heliopolis to Rome.

11 Tiberius and Germanicus re-cross the Rhine. The Theatre of Marcellus, begun by Julius, is finished.

12 Germanicus consul Tiberius granted supreme power alongside Augustus. Tiberius celebrates a triumph for Pannonia. Birth of Caligula, son of Germanicus. The Basilica Julia enlarged and rebuilt.

13 Tiberius (again) receives Tribunician Power and Proconsulare Imperium in all provinces.

14 Census of Caesar and Tiberius. Death of Augustus at Nola in Campania; buried in his own mausoleum. TIBERIUS accedes as Tiberius Caesar Augustus.

15 Achaea and Macedonia become Imperial Provinces. Tiberius becomes Pontifex Maximus. The Tiber floods it's banks.

16 Germanicus campaigns in Germany; the Elbe is abandoned as the German frontier.

17-18 Germanicus in Rome celebrates his triumph. Sejanus Prefect of the Praetorian guard. Germanicus campaigns in the East. Cappadocia and Commagene annexed Livy and Ovid die.

19 Germanicus dies at Antioch. Decrees against the profligacy of women. Tiberius restores the Temple of Castor and Pollux in the Forum. Arches erected in The Forum Of Augustus to Drusus and Germanicus.

20-24 Wars in Africa against Tacfarinas. Tiberius' son Drusus celebrates a triumph. Drusus' mother Vipsania dies. Failed rising in Gaul under Sacrovir and Florus. Death of Arminius.

21 Drusus shares the consulship with Tiberius.

22 Drusus given Tribunician Power. The Basilica Aemilia in the Forum re-built.

23 Juba of Mauretania dies. Drusus poisoned by his wife Livilla and Sejanus. Elder Pliny born. Strabo dies. Castra Praetoria barracks built for the Guard.

24 Trial and suicide of Silius and Silvanus. Death of Tacfarinas. Slave revolt in South Italy under T.Curtisius.

25 Rebellion in Thrace, suppressed by 26. Tiberius refuses Sejanus's request to marry Livilla. Thrace rebels against military service.

26 Poppaeus Sabinus given triumphal insignia for crushing Thracian revolt.

27 Tiberius settles in Capri. Fire in Rome.

28 The Frisians revolt against tribute. L. Apronius, campaigns in Germany.

29 Livia dies aged 86. Agrippina, widow of Germanicus banished to Pandateria.

30 Drusus and Asinius Gallus imprisoned.

31 Sejanus becomes a senator and consul; the fall of Sejanus. Macro Praetorian Prefect Sales tax increased back to Augustan level.

32 Death of Asinius Gallus and Drusus. General terror Price riots in the city.

33 Agrippina starves herself to death.

34 Artaxias of Armenia dies.

35 Birth of the author Quintilian. Death of Poppaeus Sabinus in the Balkans.

36 Fire in Rome. Peace between Rome and Parthia. Settlement of Judaea; imprisonment of Herod Agrippa.

37 Tiberius dies at his villa in Misenum. His ashes placed in the Mausoleum of Augustus. CALIGULA succeeds as Gaius Caesar Germanicus Augustus, Pontifex Maximus, and Pater Patriae (born 12 at Antium). He marries Livia Orestilla Antonia. Mother of Germanicus dies.

38 Death of Caligula's sister Drusilla. He marries Lollia Paulina. Anti-Jewish riots in Alexandria. Death of the Praetorian Prefect Macro. Claudius marries Valeria Messalina.

39 Caligula marries Milonia Caesonia. He 'campaigns' on the Rhine. Lepidus and Gaetulicus executed for conspiracy. Herod Antipas deposed. Caligila builds the 'Bridge of Boats' at Baiae.

40 Caligula orders that the temple of Jerusalem be turned into an Imperial shrine. Ptolemy of Mauretania executed at Rome.

41 Caligula assassinated in Rome. Ashes placed in the mausoleum of Augustus. Praetorian guard make CLAUDIUS emperor. He accedes as Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus Pontifex Maximus Pater Patriae (born Lyons, 10 bc). Birth of his son, Tiberius Claudius Germanicus (Brittanicus). Herod Agrippa given Judaea and Samaria.

42 Revolt by Lucius Scribonianus, governor of Dalmatia. Leading senators implicated. Famine in Rome. New harbour begun at Ostia. Mauretania annexed and made into two provinces. Suetonius Paulinus crosses the Atlas.

43 Conquest of Britain begun under Aulus Plautius; Claudius in Britain defeats Caractacus. Lycia merged into Pamphylia.

44 Death of Herod Agrippa. Claudius returns to Rome; his British triumph.

45 Mithridates of Bosphorus deposed and Cotys set up.

46 Asinius Gallus exiled for conspiracy. Annexation of Thrace. Citizenship given to the Gallic Anauni. Birth of the writer Plutarch.

47 Claudius holds the Secular Games to mark 800 years of the city of Rome. Plautus returns from Britain to a triumph.

48 Claudius' wife Messalina conspires with C. Silius, both executed.

49 Claudius marries his niece Julia Agrippina. Seneca made Nero's tutor. Lollia Paulina exiled and killed.

50 Claudius adopts Agrippina's son, Domitius Ahenobarbus as 'Nero'. The Chatti invade from Germany, crushed by Pomponius.

AD 51-100

51 Nero given the title Princeps Iuventutis. Burrus Praetorian Prefect. Famine in Rome. Caractacus captured in Britain.

52 The Acqueducts 'Aqua Claudia' and the 'Anio Novus' completed. Arcus Claudii erected to commemorate British victory.

53 Nero marries Claudius' daughter Octavia.

54 Claudius poisoned by his wife. NERO succeeds as Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus etc. (born 37). Seneca publishes the Apocolocyntosis.

55 Britannicus poisoned at dinner. Cnaius Corbulo given full command in the East as 'Legate of Cappadocia'.

56 Actors expelled from Rome. The Emperor takes control of the Public Treasury (Aerarium).

57 Nero builds amphitheatre in Campus Martius.

58 Initial conquest of Armenia by Corbulo - war with Parthia. The Hermundiri and the Chatti at war in Germany.

59 Nero murders Agrippina. The market 'Macellum Magnum' built on the Caelio.

60 Financial crisis and depreciation of coinage. Corbulo sets up Tigranes in Armenia.

61 Suppression of British revolt under Boudicca.

62 Nero divorces Octavia and marries Poppaea Sabina. Death of Burrus.

63 Treaty with Parthia and settlement of the Armenian question under Tiridates. Trapezus becomes base of Roman fleet on the Black Sea.

64 Nero makes his musical debut in public at Naples. Great fire of Rome. Nero begins building of the Golden House.

65 Conspiracy of Calpurnius Piso. Suicide of Seneca and Lucan (born 39). Nero kicks his wife Poppaea to death. Epidemic in the City.

66 Jewish revolt begins. Vespasian appointed commander in Palestine. Nero marries Statilia Messalina. The general Corbulo ordered to commit suicide. Suicide of Petronius ('Arbiter' of taste and author of Satyricon). Nero goes to Greece.

67 Josephus the Jew deserts to the Romans. Vespasian reduces Galilee. Nero victorious at the Games in Greece.

68 Julius Vindex raises rebellion in Gallia Lugdun. The Senate declares Nero a public enemy. 9th June, suicide of Nero.

68-79 AD Battle for Emperorship between Galba, Vitellius, Otho (the hairy giant), Vespasian and Titus.

69 Galba , Vitellius, Otho and Vespasian contest for power. Victory for Vespasian at Betriacum and sack of Cremona. War with the Garamantes in Libya. Batavian revolt under Julius Civilis. Fire on the Capitoline destroys archives.

70 VESPASIAN emperor as Imperator Titus Flavius Vespasianus Caesar, soon after as Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born 17 at Falacrinae). Begins to construct new palace. TITUS becomes Caesar. Defeat of Civilis and of the rising of Treviri in Gaul. Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus.

71 Temple of Peace begun. Titus 'Prefect of the Praetorians'.

72 Commagene annexed by Caessenius Paetus. The Flavian Amphitheatre begun.

73 Vespasian and Titus censors. High taxation. Achaea loses the freedom given to it by Nero. The Jews riot in Alexandria. Alans invade Armenia and Parthia.

74 Fall of the stronghold of Masada in Palestine. Vespasian grants Latin rights to all Spain.

75 Titus calls his lover, Queen Berenice, to Rome. Temple of Peace finished. Temple of Jupiter rebuilt. The legate of Syria, M. Ulpius Traianus, defeats the Parthians.

78 Agricola becomes Legatus Propraetore in Britain. The author Tacitus marries his daughter.

79 Vespasian dies of illness in Campania. TITUS succeeds as Imperator Titus Caesar Vespasianus Augustus, later Pontifex Max and Pater Patriae (born Rome 39) His wife is Domitia Longina. Eruption of Vesuvius; end of Pompeii. Death of Elder Pliny.

80 Fire in Rome and destruction of the Capitoline temple. Inauguration of Flavian Amphitheatre (Colosseum). 100 day games. Dedication of the Baths of Titus.

81 Titus dies in Campania. General mourning. DOMITIAN accedes as Imperator Caesar Domitianus Augustus (born Rome 51). Agricola campaigns in Scotland.

82 Domitian restores the Capitol.

83 Campaign against the German Chatti. Domitian takes name "Germanicus". Domitia Longina exiled.

84 Battle of Mons. Graupius in Scotland. Domitian censor for life.

85 Agricola returns from Britain to Rome. Domitian makes himself Censor for life.

86 Domitian at war with the Dacians under Decebalus; The Praetorian prefect, Cornelius Fuscus, defeated and killed. Nasamones revolts in Africa. Stadium in the Campus Martius rebuilt in brick and stone (Piazza Navona). The Agon Capitolinus instituted.

87 The Praetorian prefect, Cornelius Fuscus, killed in Dacia. First major 'conspiracy' unearthed.

88 Tacitus Praetor. Victory over Dacians at Tapae.

89-90 Philosophers banished from the City. Mutiny in Upper Germany under Saturninus. Domitian in Germany. War with Suevi Marcomanni and Iazyges: Domitian makes peace with Dacians.

91 The consul Acilius Glabro forced to fight in the Amphitheatre. The Equus Domitiani statue erected in the Forum.

92 Iazyges invade. Dacia Domitian, in person, ends the war against Suebi and Sarmatians. His Palace on the Palatine completed by Rabirius. Quintilian the lawyer publishes "Institutio Oratoria", a programme of oratory.

93-95 Death of Agricola. Domitian begins 'terror'. Domitian executes his cousin, Titus Flavius Clemens, for Christianity.

96 The poet Statius dies in his native Naples. Domitian assassinated, His acts annulled.

96-161 AD Rule of the "Good Emperors" Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius.

Marcus Cocceius NERVA (born 30) proclaimed by the Senate as Imperator Nerva Caesar Augustus. Hailed as Pater Patriae. Limitation of games and corn doles.

97 Trajan legate in Upper Germany. Revolt of the Praetorians under Aelianus. Nerva adopts Trajan. Both receive the surname 'Germanicus'. Institution of Alimenta "De Aquaeductibus" written by Sex. Julius Frontinus the Curator Aquarum. The Forum of Nerva (begun by Domitian) is completed. A Chinese embassy attempts to visit Rome but is dissuaded in Mesopotamia. Tacitus consul; he delivers the funeral oration on his predecessor, Verginius Rufus.

98 Death of Nerva, Jan. 28th, from apoplexy.Marcus Ulpius Nerva. TRAJAN accedes at Cologne aged 45. (Born, Italica, Spain, in 53). His full title Imperator Caesar Divi Nervae filius Nerva Traianus Augustus. Trajan winters on the Danube. Tacitus publishes the 'Agricola' and writes the 'Germania'.

99 Trajan returns to Rome. Is named Pater Patriae. Marcus Priscus, proconsul of Africa, exiled. Galatia and Pontus Polemoniacus separated from Cappadocia. Julius Frontinus completes a survey of the Roman water supply. The Kushans send a delegation to Rome.

100 The younger Pliny consul. His panegyric on Trajan Death of Quintilian, born c.35. Colonies built in Africa - the Third Augusta based at Thamugadi, Numidia.

AD 101-161

101 1st Dacian War. Trajan defeats Decebalus at Tapae. Extension of the Alimenta. Death of Silius Italicus. Death of Martial (born c.40).

102 Trajan captures Sarmizigethusa, the Dacian capital. Trajan receives title of Dacicus. Emperor orders extension of the port at Ostia.

103 Pliny successfully defends. C.Julius Bassus, proconsul of Bithynia. Harbour built at Centumcellae.

104 Trajan goes to Moesia. Death of Martial (born c.40), at Bibilis in Spain. Nero's Palace destroyed by fire.

105 2nd Dacian War. Defeat and death of Decebalus. Dacia a province. Hadrian is Tribunus Plebis. Trajan's wife Pompeia Plotina becomes Augusta. Bridge of Alcantara built over the River Tagus.

106 Arabia (the Nabataean Kingdom) made an Imperial province (under the Syrian governor, Cornelius Palma).

107 Trajan celebrates a Triumph for the Dacian War. Law requires senators to invest 1/3 of their property in Italian land. Basilica Ulpia built (c. until 118). Osroes becomes King of Parthia.

108 Hadrian Legate in Pannonia Inferior. Drives back Sarmatians.

109 The Aqua Traiana acqueduct completed. Hadrian consul.

110 The Legio X11 garrisons Dacia Baths of Trajan built over Nero's Golden House (by Apollodorus).

111 Pliny arrives in Bythinia as Legate with Consular Power.

112 Pliny corresponds with the Emperor regarding Christians. Forum of Trajan dedicated.

113 War declared against Parthia. Column of Trajan completed. The re-built Forum of Caesar is inaugurated.

114 Trajan in the East. Armenia made a province. Lusius Quietus conquers Media. Senate votesa triumphal arch at Beneventum, on the new Via Traiana.

115 Trajan occupies Mesopotamia and makes it a province. Trouble among the Jews in Cyrene and Egypt. Lusius Quietus institutes brutal repression in Judaea. The harbour of Encona enlarged.

116 The Parthian capital Ctesiphon captured. Trajan annexes Adiabene and forms the province of Assyria. Tigris becomes the Eastern boundary. Trajan visits Charax. Bloody risings of Jews in Greece Cyprus and Egypt are suppressed.

117 Parthamaspates son of Chosroes accepts the Parthian crown from Trajan. Trajan dies at Selinus in Cilicia, from a stroke. P. Aelius Hadrianus, legatus of Syria is hailed by the soldiers and then by the Senate. He decides to abandon Armenia Mesopotamia and Assyria. HADRIAN suceeds as Imperator Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus, Pontifex Max.(born Rome 76). His wife is Vibia Sabina. Death of Tacitus .

118-120 Hadrian takes oath not to execute Senators. Hadrian begins complete re-building of the Pantheon of Agrippa. The Temple of Matidia (Hadrian's mother-in-law) dedicated.

121 Temple of Venus and Rome begun. Birth of Marcus Aurelius. Hadrian's 1st journey through the provinces.

122 Emperor's visit to Britain. He commissions wall. He orders the colony of Aelia Capitolina at Jerusalem. Emperor dismisses Suetonius as his private secretary.

123 The Augusta Plotina dies, Hadrian wears black for nine days. Peace treaty between Hadrian and Osroes of Parthia, Armenia under the protection of Rome.

124 Hadrian in Greece; initiated into Eleusinian mysteries.

125 Work begins on Hadrian's Villa near Tivoli. Plutarch dies in Greece.

126 Hadrian presides over the Great Dionysia.

127 Hadrian in Rome. Becomes Pater Patriae.

128 Hadrian's Wall completed Emperor in Athens. He dedicates the Temple of Olympian Zeus. Hadrian takes title "Olympius".

129 Hadrian's 2nd journey through the Empire.

130 Death of Juvenal, born c.65. Hadrian's boyfriend Antinous drowns in the Nile.

131 Foundation of Antinoopolis in Egypt.

132 Jewish revolt under Bar Kochba and Eleazar.

133 Jerusalem and Caesarea held by the Romans.

134 Hadrian back in Rome. Arrian, governor of Cappadocia, defeats an invasion by the Alans from Russia.

135 Temple of Venus and Rome dedicated. Bar Kochba revolt ends - dispersal of Jewish people. Death of the Stoic Epictetus (born c.55) in Nicopolis, Epirus.

136 Death of Vibia Sabina. Hadrian falls ill; adopts Lucius Ceionius Commodus.

137 Completion of Via Hadriana.

138 Death of Commodus, adoption of Antoninus. Hadrian dies at Baia. ANTONINUS succeeds as Imperator Titus Aelius Caesar Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius Pont. Max. (born Lanuvium 86). His wife: Annia Galeria Faustina.

139 Hadrian and Sabina buried in The Mausoleum of Hadrian. Hadrian declared 'divus' against will of Senate. Antoninus 'Pater Patriae'.

140 Death of Empress Faustina, Temple voted in her honour.

143 The Brigantes in Britain become subjects. Antonine Wall built in Scotland.

144 Speech of the Greek orator Aelius Aristides in praise of Rome.

145 Aurelius marries Antoninus' daughter Faustina.

146 War in Africa. Templum Divi Hadriani dedicated (Piazza di Pietra).

147 Aurelius made Caesar and Consort in the Empire.

148 Celebration of Rome's 900th anniversary.

155 War with Parthia. Antoninus in the East.

161 Antoninus dies from eating too much cheese at his palace in Lorium near Rome. The scholar Lucius Aelius Stilo born. MARCUS AURELIUS emperor.


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