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The Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs

The Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs

A readed video of the Patriarchs:

The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is a constituent of the apocryphal scriptures connected with the Bible. It is a pseudepigraphical work comprising the dying commands of the twelve sons of Jacob. It is part of the Oscan Armenian Orthodox Bible of 1666. Fragments of similar writings were found at Qumran, but opinions are divided as to whether these are the same texts. It is considered Apocalyptic literature.

The Testaments were written in Greek, and reached their final form in the second century CE. In the 13th century they were introduced into the West through the agency of Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln, whose Latin translation of the work immediately became popular. He believed that it was a genuine work of the twelve sons of Jacob, and that the Christian interpolations were a genuine product of Jewish prophecy; he accused Jews of concealing the Testaments "on account of the prophecies of the Saviour contained in them."

With the critical methods of the 16th century, Grosseteste's view of the Testaments was rejected, and the book was disparaged as a mere Christian forgery for nearly four centuries. Presently, scholarly opinions are still divided as to whether the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is an originally Jewish document that has been retouched by Christians, or a Christian document written originally in Greek but based on some earlier Semitic-language material. Scholarship tends to focus on this book as a Christian work, whether or not it has a Jewish predecessor (Vorlage). Summary

The work is divided into twelve books, each purporting to be the last exhortations of one of the twelve titular patriarchs. In each, the patriarch first narrates his own life, focusing on his strengths, virtues, or his sins, using biographical material from both the Hebrew Bible and Jewish tradition. Next he exhorts his listeners to emulate the one and to avoid the other. Most of the books conclude with prophetic visions.  

Rueben the first son of Jacob and Leah

Simeon, the second son of Jacob and Leah

Levi, the third son of Jacob and Leah

Part 1:

Part 2:

 Judah, the fourth son of Jaco and Leah

Part 1:

Part 2:

Issashar, the fifth son of Jaco and Leah

Zebulun, the sixth son of Jaco and Leah

Dan, the sevent son of Jacob and Bilhah

Naphtali, the eigh son of Jacob and Bilhah

Gad, the ninth son of Jacob and Bilhah

Asher, the tenth son of Jacob and Bilhah

Joseph, the sevent son of Jacob and Rachel

Benjamin, the sevent son of Jacob and Rachel


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